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Peñon Woman
Peñon woman
Peñon woman
or Peñon Woman III is the name for the human remains, specifically a skull, of a Paleo-Indian
Paleo-Indian
woman found by an ancient lake bed near Mexico City
Mexico City
in 1959.[1] Peñon Woman III was found on an island in the middle of Lake Texcoco.[2] The skeleton's age has been estimated by radiocarbon dating by Silvia Gonzalez of Liverpool John Moores University.[3] Her 14C date is 10,755±55 years[2] (12,705 cal years) BP
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Hopewell Tradition
The Hopewell tradition
Hopewell tradition
(also called the Hopewell culture) describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States
United States
from 200 BCE to 500 CE, in the Middle Woodland
Middle Woodland
period. The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations. They were connected by a common network of trade routes,[1] known as the Hopewell exchange system. At its greatest extent, the Hopewell exchange system ran from the Crystal River Indian Mounds
Crystal River Indian Mounds
in modern-day Florida
Florida
as far north as the Canadian shores of Lake Ontario. Within this area, societies participated in a high degree of exchange with the highest amount of activity along waterways
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Caloosahatchee Culture
The Caloosahatchee culture
Caloosahatchee culture
is an archaeological culture on the Gulf coast of Southwest Florida
Southwest Florida
that lasted from about 500 to 1750 CE. Its territory consisted of the coast from Estero Bay to Charlotte Harbor and inland about halfway to Lake Okeechobee, approximately covering what are now Charlotte and Lee counties. At the time of first European contact, the Caloosahatchee culture
Caloosahatchee culture
region formed the core of the Calusa
Calusa
domain. Some Archaic artifacts have been found in the Caloosahatchee culture region, including one site classified as early Archaic. There is evidence that Charlotte Harbor aquatic resources were being intensively exploited before 3500 BC
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Post-Classic Stage
In the classification of the archaeology of the Americas, the Post-Classic Stage is a term applied to some Precolumbian cultures, typically ending with local contact with Europeans. This stage is the fifth of five archaeological stages posited by Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips' 1958 book Method and Theory in American Archaeology.[1]The Lithic stage The Archaic stage The Formative stage The Classic stage The Post-Classic stageCultures of the Post-Classic Stage are defined distinctly by possessing developed metallurgy. Social organization is supposed to involve complex urbanism and militarism
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Adena Culture
The Adena culture
Adena culture
was a Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BC, in a time known as the Early Woodland period. The Adena culture
Adena culture
refers to what were probably a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex and ceremonial system
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Alachua Culture
The Alachua culture
Alachua culture
is defined as a Late Woodland Southeast period archaeological culture in north-central Florida, dating from around 600 to 1700. It is found in an area roughly corresponding to present-day Alachua County, the northern half of Marion County and the western part of Putnam County. It was preceded by the Cades Pond culture, which inhabited approximately the same area.Contents1 Origin 2 Periods 3 Sites 4 Subsistence 5 Notes 6 See Also 7 ReferencesOrigin[edit] The archeologist Jerald Milanich suggests that the people of the Alachua culture
Alachua culture
were immigrants from what is now Georgia. Early Alachua culture
Alachua culture
pottery resembled that of the Ocmulgee culture found along the Ocmulgee River. In this scenario, the Ocmulgee immigrants were either already practicing agriculture or adopted it shortly after arriving, and settled in upland areas suitable for agriculture
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Ancient Beringian
The Ancient Beringians are the earliest known population of Alaska, who migrated from Beringia
Beringia
and into Alaska during the lithic stage sometime prior to 11,500 years ago
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Ancestral Puebloans
The Ancestral Puebloans
Ancestral Puebloans
were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners
Four Corners
region of the United States, comprising southeastern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado.[1] The Ancestral Puebloans
Ancestral Puebloans
are believed to have developed, at least in part, from the Oshara Tradition, who developed from the Picosa culture. They lived in a range of structures that included small family pit houses, larger structures to house clans, grand pueblos, and cliff-sited dwellings for defense. The Ancestral Puebloans
Ancestral Puebloans
possessed a complex network that stretched across the Colorado
Colorado
Plateau
Plateau
linking hundreds of communities and population centers
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Baytown Culture
The Baytown culture
Baytown culture
was a Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
Native American culture that existed from 300 to 700 CE in the lower Mississippi River
Mississippi River
Valley, consisting of sites in eastern Arkansas, western Tennessee, Louisiana, and western Mississippi. The Baytown Site
Baytown Site
on the White River in Monroe County, Arkansas
Arkansas
is the type site for culture.[1] It was a Baytown Period culture[2] during the Late Woodland period
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Belle Glade Culture
The Belle Glade culture, or Okeechobee culture, is an archaeological culture that existed from as early as 1000 BCE
BCE
until about 1700 in the area surrounding Lake Okeechobee
Lake Okeechobee
and in the Kissimmee River
Kissimmee River
valley in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Florida. Major archaeological sites of the Belle Glade culture
Belle Glade culture
include Belle Glade Mound, Big Mound
Mound
City, the Boynton Mound
Mound
complex, Fort Center, Ortona Mound
Ortona Mound
and Tony's Mound.[1] The Belle Glade site, 1.5 miles (2.4 km) west of the city of Belle Glade, which gave its name to the culture, and Big Mound
Mound
City, 15 miles (24 km) south of Belle Glade, were partially excavated in 1933 and 1934 by a Civil Works Administration project supervised by Matthew Stirling
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Buttermilk Creek Complex
Buttermilk Creek Complex
Buttermilk Creek Complex
refers to the remains of a paleolithic settlement along the shores of Buttermilk Creek in present-day Salado, Texas
Texas
dated to approximately 15,500 years old. If confirmed, the site represents evidence of human settlement in the Americas that pre-dates Clovis culture.[1]Contents1 Introduction 2 Background 3 Clovis first model 4 Excavations 5 Artifact assemblage 6 Dating techniques 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksIntroduction[edit] The Buttermilk Creek Complex
Buttermilk Creek Complex
found at the Debra L. Friedkin Paleo-Indian
Paleo-Indian
archaeological site in Bell County, Texas
Texas
has provided archaeological evidence of a human presence in the Americas that pre-dates the Clovis peoples, who until recently were thought to be the first humans to colonize the New World
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Caborn-Welborn Culture
Caborn-Welborn was a prehistoric North American culture defined by archaeologists as a Late Mississippian cultural manifestation that grew out of — or built upon the demise of — the Angel chiefdom located in the territory of southern present-day Indiana. Caborn-Welborn developed around 1400 and seems to have disappeared around 1700.[1] The Caborn-Welborn culture
Caborn-Welborn culture
was the last Native American occupation of southern Indiana before European contact. It remains unclear which historic-era native group, if any, are their descendants.Contents1 Location1.1 Sites 1.2 Timeline2 Material culture2.1 Pottery 2.2 Agriculture and Food3 European trade goods 4 See also 5 ReferencesLocation[edit] The Caborn-Welborn culture
Caborn-Welborn culture
is a cluster of more than 80 sites located mostly on ridges along the Wabash and Ohio rivers from Geneva, Kentucky to the mouth of the Saline River
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Calf Creek Culture
Calf Creek Culture was a nomadic hunter-gatherer people who lived in the southcentral region of North America, especially in the area of what is today Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and surrounding states, artifacts having been found in such places as Beard's Bluff, Arkansas and Sand Springs, Oklahoma. The Calf Creek culture
Calf Creek culture
was active during the early to middle Archaic period in the Americas, approximately 7,500 to 4,000 years ago. The Calf Creek people were noted for their use of large, heat-treated flint spearheads. The Calf Creek point was first named and described in an Arkansas amateur archaeological journal by Don Dickson in 1968, for examples found at Calf Creek cave in Searcy County Arkansas. The cave was named for a small, perennial stream that runs nearby. In 2003, a 5,120±25-year-old bison skull was found on the banks of the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
by Kim Holt
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Clovis Culture
The Clovis culture
Clovis culture
is a prehistoric Paleo-Indian
Paleo-Indian
culture, named for distinct stone tools found in close association with Pleistocene
Pleistocene
fauna at Blackwater Locality No. 1
Blackwater Locality No. 1
near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s and 1930s. The Clovis culture
Clovis culture
appears around 11,500–11,000 uncal RCYBP[1] (uncalibrated radiocarbon years before present), at the end of the last glacial period, and is characterized by the manufacture of "Clovis points" and distinctive bone and ivory tools. Archaeologists' most precise determinations at present suggest that this radiocarbon age is equal to roughly 13,200 to 12,900 calendar years ago
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Formative Stage
Several chronologies in the archaeology of the Americas include a Formative Period or Formative stage
Formative stage
etc. It is often sub-divided, for example into "Early", "Middle" and "Late" stages. The dates, and the characteristics of the period called "Formative" vary considerably between different parts of the Americas
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Coles Creek Culture
Coles Creek culture
Coles Creek culture
is a Late Woodland archaeological culture in the Lower Mississippi
Mississippi
valley in the southern United States. It followed the Troyville culture. The period marks a significant change in the cultural history of the area. Population increased dramatically and there is strong evidence of a growing cultural and political complexity, especially by the end of the Coles Creek sequence. Although many of the classic traits of chiefdom societies are not yet manifested, by 1000 CE the formation of simple elite polities had begun. Coles Creek sites are found in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi
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