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Pazyryk Burials
Coordinates: 49°34′44″N 88°09′11″E / 49.579°N 88.153°E / 49.579; 88.153Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c.300 BC. For another felt artifact, see here.The Pazyryk (Russian: Пазырык) burials are a number of Scythian[1][2][3] Iron Age tombs found in the Pazyryk Valley of the Ukok plateau
Ukok plateau
in the Altai Mountains, Siberia, south of the modern city of Novosibirsk, Russia; the site is close to the borders with China, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Mongolia.[4] Numerous comparable burials have been found in neighboring western Mongolia. The tombs are Scythian-type kurgans, barrow-like tomb mounds containing wooden chambers covered over by large cairns of boulders and stones, dated to the 4th - 3rd centuries BCE.[5] The spectacular burials at Pazyryk are responsible for the introduction of the term kurgan, a Russian word of Turkic origin, into general usage to describe these tombs
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Mongoloid
Mongoloid
Mongoloid
(/ˈmɒŋ.ɡə.lɔɪd/[1][2]) is a term used for all or some peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, North Asia, South Asia, the Arctic, the Americas
Americas
and the Pacific Islands. It is part of the three great races introduced by Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier
in the 18th century, the other two groups being Caucasoid
Caucasoid
and Negroid. Individuals within these populations often share certain associated phenotypic traits, such as epicanthic folds, sinodonty, shovel-shaped incisors and neoteny. The concept of Mongoloid
Mongoloid
races is historical referring to a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon
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Rosette (design)
A rosette is a round, stylized flower design.Contents1 Origin 2 History 3 Ancient origins 4 Modern use 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 FootnotesOrigin[edit] The rosette derives from the natural shape of the botanical rosette, formed by leaves radiating out from the stem of a plant and visible even after the flowers have withered. History[edit] The rosette design is used extensively in sculptural objects from antiquity, appearing in Mesopotamia,and in funeral steles' decoration in Ancient Greece
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Funerary Mask
A death mask is an image, typically in wax or plaster cast made of a person's face following death, often by taking a cast or impression directly from the corpse. Death
Death
masks may be mementos of the dead, or be used for creation of portraits. It is sometimes possible to identify portraits that have been painted from death masks, because of the characteristic slight distortions of the features caused by the weight of the plaster during the making of the mold. In other cultures a death mask may be a funeral mask, an image placed on the face of the deceased before burial rites, and normally buried with them
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Hellenistic Kingdoms
The Diadochi (/daɪˈædəkaɪ/; plural of Latin Diadochus, from Greek: Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi, "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC
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Cimmerian
The Cimmerians
Cimmerians
(also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were an ancient people, who appeared about 1000 BC [2] and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records. Probably originating in the Pontic steppe and invading by means of the Caucasus, they are likely to be those who in c. 714 BC assaulted Urartu, a state in north eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
subject to the Neo-Assyrian Empire. They were defeated by Assyrian forces under Sargon II
Sargon II
in 705 and turned towards Anatolia, conquering Phrygia
Phrygia
in 696/5. They reached the height of their power in 652 after taking Sardis, the capital of Lydia; however an invasion of Assyrian controlled Anshan (Persia)
Anshan (Persia)
was thwarted. Soon after 619, Alyattes of Lydia
Lydia
defeated them
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Bosporus
The Bosporus
Bosporus
(/ˈbɒspərəs/) or Bosphorus (/ˈbɒspərəs/ or /ˈbɒsfərəs/);[1] Greek: Βόσπορος, Bósporos [ˈvos.po.ros], Ancient Greek: Βόσπορος, Bósporos [bós.po.ros]; Turkish: İstanbul Boğazı, [isˈtanbuɫ bo‿aˈzɯ]) is a narrow, natural strait and an internationally significant waterway located in northwestern Turkey. It forms part of the continental boundary between Europe
Europe
and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey
Turkey
from European Turkey
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Archaeologist
Archaeology, or archeology,[1] is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes. Archaeology
Archaeology
can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities.[2][3] In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology,[4] while in Europe
Europe
archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi
Lomekwi
in East Africa
Africa
3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology
Archaeology
as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, the study of fossil remains
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Saint Petersburg
Saint
Saint
Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: [ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk] ( listen)) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with five million inhabitants in 2012.[9] An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject (a federal city). Situated on the Neva
Neva
River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar
Tsar
Peter the Great
Peter the Great
on May 27 [O.S. 16] 1703
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Europoid
The Caucasian race (also Caucasoid,[1] or Europid)[2] is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon, which, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have usually included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.[3] First introduced in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History,[4] the term denoted one of three purported major races of humankind (Caucasoid, Mongoloid, Negroid).[5] In biological anthropology, Caucasoid has been used as an umbrella term for phenotypically similar groups from these different regions, with a focus on skeletal anatomy, and especially cranial morphology, over skin tone.[6] Ancient and modern "Caucasoid" populations were thus held to have ranged in complexion from white to dark brown.[7] Since the second half of the 20th century, physical anthropologists have moved away from
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Infrared Photography
Top: tree photographed in the near infrared range. Bottom: same tree in the visible part of the spectrum. Infrared
Infrared
image of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
crossed by a bridge and a dam, between red foliage on left, and blue parking lots and buildings on rightVisible vs. Infrared
Infrared
(900 nm LP) Aerial Photography
Photography
of Old Hickory Lake, Tennessee. Taken from a passenger airplane within seconds apart using SONY
SONY
H-9 Digital camera.In infrared photography, the film or image sensor used is sensitive to infrared light. The part of the spectrum used is referred to as near-infrared to distinguish it from far-infrared, which is the domain of thermal imaging. Wavelengths used for photography range from about 700 nm to about 900 nm
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Felt
Felt
Felt
is a textile material that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers together. Felt
Felt
can be made of natural fibers such as wool or animal fur, or from synthetic fibers such as petroleum-based acrylic or acrylonitrile or wood pulp-based rayon. Blended fibers are also common.[1][2][3]Contents1 History 2 Manufacturing methods2.1 Wet felting 2.2 Needle felting 2.3 Carroting3 Uses3.1 Felt
Felt
in musical instruments 3.2 Industrial uses 3.3 Felt
Felt
in arts and crafts 3.4 Felt
Felt
in art and design 3.5 Felt
Felt
in fashion4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksHistory[edit] Felt
Felt
from wool is considered to be the oldest known textile.[4] Many cultures have legends as to the origins of felt making
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Embroidery
Embroidery
Embroidery
is the craft of decorating fabric or other materials using a needle to apply thread or yarn. Embroidery
Embroidery
may also incorporate other materials such as pearls, beads, quills, and sequins. In modern days, embroidery is usually seen on caps, hats, coats, blankets, dress shirts, denim, dresses, stockings, and golf shirts. Embroidery
Embroidery
is available with a wide variety of thread or yarn color. Some of the basic techniques or stitches of the earliest embroidery are chain stitch, buttonhole or blanket stitch, running stitch, satin stitch, cross stitch
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Tattoo
A tattoo is a form of body modification where a design is made by inserting ink, dyes and pigments, either indelible or temporary, into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment. The art of making tattoos is tattooing. Tattoos fall into three broad categories: purely decorative (with no specific meaning); symbolic (with a specific meaning pertinent to the wearer); pictorial (a depiction of a specific person or item). Tattoos have historically been regarded in the West as 'uncivilised', and over the last 100 years the fashion has been associated mainly with sailors, working men and criminals
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Donkey
The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus)[1][2] is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae. The wild ancestor of the donkey is the African wild ass, E. africanus. The donkey has been used as a working animal for at least 5000 years. There are more than 40 million donkeys in the world, mostly in underdeveloped countries, where they are used principally as draught or pack animals. Working donkeys are often associated with those living at or below subsistence levels. Small numbers of donkeys are kept for breeding or as pets in developed countries. A male donkey or ass is called a jack, a female a jenny or jennet;[3][4][5] a young donkey is a foal.[5] Jack donkeys are often used to mate with female horses to produce mules; the biological "reciprocal" of a mule, from a stallion and jenny as its parents instead, is called a hinny. Asses were first domesticated around 3000 BC, probably in Egypt or Mesopotamia,[6][7] and have spread around the world
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