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Pazyryk Burials
Coordinates : 49°34′44″N 88°09′11″E / 49.579°N 88.153°E / 49.579; 88.153 Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c.300 BC. For another felt artifact, see here . The PAZYRYK (Russian : Пазырык) BURIALS are a number of Scythian
Scythian
Iron Age tombs found in the Pazyryk Valley of the Ukok plateau in the Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
, Siberia
Siberia
, south of the modern city of Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
, Russia
Russia
; the site is close to the borders with China
China
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Mongolia
Mongolia
. Numerous comparable burials have been found in neighboring western Mongolia
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Bosporus
The BOSPHORUS (/ˈbɒsfərəs/ or /ˈbɒspərəs/ ) or BOSPORUS (/ˈbɒspərəs/ ; Greek : Βόσπορος, Bósporos, pronounced Vosporos in Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Βόσπορος; Turkish : Boğaziçi, pronounced ) is a narrow, natural strait and an internationally significant waterway located in northwestern Turkey
Turkey
. It forms part of the continental boundary between Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
, and separates Asian Turkey
Turkey
from European Turkey
Turkey
. The world's narrowest strait used for international navigation , the Bosphorus
Bosphorus
connects the Black Sea
Black Sea
with the Sea of Marmara
Sea of Marmara
, and, by extension via the Dardanelles
Dardanelles
, the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas
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Archaeologist
ARCHAEOLOGY, or ARCHEOLOGY, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture . The archaeological record consists of artifacts , architecture , biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes . Archaeology
Archaeology
can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities . In North America
North America
, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology , while in Europe
Europe
archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history , from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa
Africa
3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology
Archaeology
as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology , the study of fossil remains
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St. Petersburg
SAINT PETERSBURG (Russian : Санкт-Петербу́рг, tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: ( listen )) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow
Moscow
, with five million inhabitants in 2012. An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
, it has a status of a federal subject (a federal city ). Situated on the Neva River , at the head of the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
on the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
, it was founded by Tsar
Tsar
Peter the Great on May 27 1703. In 1914, the name was changed from Saint
Saint
Petersburg to PETROGRAD (Russian : Петрогра́д, IPA: ), in 1924 to LENINGRAD (Russian : Ленингра́д, IPA: ), and in 1991 back to Saint Petersburg
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Europoid
The CAUCASIAN RACE (also CAUCASOID, or EUROPID ) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon , which, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have usually included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe , the Caucasus , Asia Minor , North Africa , the Horn of Africa , Western Asia , Central Asia and South Asia . In biological anthropology , Caucasoid has been used as an umbrella term for phenotypically similar groups from these different regions, with a focus on skeletal anatomy, and especially cranial morphology, over skin tone . Ancient and modern "Caucasoid" populations were thus held to have ranged in complexion from white to dark brown. In the United States, the root term Caucasian has also often been used in a different, societal context as a synonym for "white " or "of European ancestry"
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Cimmerian
The CIMMERIANS (also Kimmerians, Greek Κιμμέριοι Kimmerioi) are an ancient people, first mentioned in the late 8th century BC in Assyrian records. Likely originating in the Pontic steppe and invading by means of the Caucasus
Caucasus
, they probably assaulted Urartu
Urartu
, a state in north eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
subject to the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
, in c. 714 BC. They were defeated by Assyrian forces under Sargon II
Sargon II
in 705 and turned towards Anatolia
Anatolia
, conquering Phrygia in 696/5. They reached the height of their power in 652 after taking Sardis
Sardis
, the capital of Lydia
Lydia
; however an invasion of Assyrian controlled Anshan (Persia) was thwarted by the Assyrians
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Hellenistic Kingdoms
The DIADOCHI (/daɪˈædəkaɪ/ ; plural of Latin
Latin
DIADOCHUS, from Greek : Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi, "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC. The Wars of the Diadochi
Diadochi
mark the beginning of the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period

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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Sun Symbols
A SOLAR SYMBOL is a symbol representing the Sun . Common solar symbols include circles with or without rays, crosses or spirals. In religious iconography, personifications of the Sun or solar attributes are indicated by means of a halo or a radiate crown . When the systematic study of comparative mythology first became popular in the 19th century, scholarly opinion tended to over-interpret historical myths and iconography in terms of "solar symbolism". This was especially the case with Max Müller and his followers beginning in the 1860s in the context of Indo-European studies . Many "solar symbols" claimed in the 19th century, such as the swastika , triskele , Sun cross , etc. have tended to be interpreted more conservatively in scholarship since the later 20th century
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Rosette (design)
A ROSETTE is a round, stylized flower design, used extensively in sculptural objects from antiquity , appearing in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and used to decorate the funeral stele in Ancient Greece . It was adopted later in Romaneseque and Renaissance , and also common in the art of Central Asia , spreading as far as India where it is used as a decorative motif in Greco-Buddhist art . The rosette derives from the natural shape of the botanical rosette , formed by leaves radiating out from the stem of a plant and visible even after the flowers have withered. The formalised flower motif is often carved in stone or wood to create decorative ornaments for architecture and furniture, and in metalworking , jewelry design and the applied arts to form a decorative border or at the intersection of two materials. Rosette decorations have been used for formal military awards
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Funerary Mask
A DEATH MASK is an image, typically in wax or plaster cast made of a person's face following death , often by taking a cast or impression directly from the corpse. Death
Death
masks may be mementos of the dead, or be used for creation of portraits . It is sometimes possible to identify portraits that have been painted from death masks, because of the characteristic slight distortions of the features caused by the weight of the plaster during the making of the mold . In other cultures a death mask may be a FUNERAL MASK, an image placed on the face of the deceased before burial rites, and normally buried with them. The best known of these are the masks used by ancient Egyptians as part of the mummification process, such as Tutankhamun\'s mask , and those from Mycenean Greece such as the Mask of Agamemnon
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Mongoloid
MONGOLOID /ˈmɒŋ.ɡə.lɔɪd/ is a term used for all or some peoples indigenous to East Asia
East Asia
, Central Asia
Central Asia
, Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, North Asia
North Asia
, the Arctic
Arctic
, the Americas
Americas
, and the Pacific Islands
Pacific Islands
. Individuals within these populations often share certain associated phenotypic traits, such as epicanthic folds (epicanthus), sinodonty and neoteny . The term is a historical term that referred to a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon . Epicanthic folds and oblique palpebral fissures are common among Mongoloid
Mongoloid
individuals. Most exhibit the Mongolian spot from birth to about age four
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Infrared Photography
Top: tree photographed in the near infrared range. Bottom: same tree in the visible part of the spectrum . Infrared image of the Mississippi River crossed by a bridge and a dam, between red foliage on left, and blue parking lots and buildings on right Visible vs. Infrared (900 nm LP) Aerial Photography of Old Hickory Lake , Tennessee . Taken from a passenger airplane within seconds apart using SONY H-9 Digital camera. In INFRARED PHOTOGRAPHY, the film or image sensor used is sensitive to infrared light. The part of the spectrum used is referred to as near-infrared to distinguish it from far-infrared, which is the domain of thermal imaging . Wavelengths used for photography range from about 700 nm to about 900 nm
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Carnivore
A CARNIVORE /ˈkɑːrnɪvɔər/ meaning 'Meat Eater' ( Latin
Latin
, carne meaning 'meat' or 'flesh' and vorare meaning 'to devour') is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue , whether through predation or scavenging . Animals that depend solely on animal flesh for their nutrient requirements are called obligate carnivores while those that also consume non-animal food are called facultative carnivores. Omnivores also consume both animal and non-animal food, and apart from the more general definition, there is no clearly defined ratio of plant to animal material that would distinguish a facultative carnivore from an omnivore. A carnivore that sits at the top of the food chain is termed an apex predator . Plants that capture and digest insects (and, at times, other small animals) are called carnivorous plants
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Griffin
The GRIFFIN, GRIFFON, or GRYPHON (Greek : γρύφων, grýphōn, or γρύπων, grýpōn, early form γρύψ, grýps; Latin : gryphus) is a legendary creature with the body, tail, and back legs of a lion ; the head and wings of an eagle ; and an eagle's talons as its front feet. Because the lion was traditionally considered the king of the beasts and the eagle the king of birds, the griffin was thought to be an especially powerful and majestic creature. The griffin was also thought of as king of all creatures. Griffins are known for guarding treasure and priceless possessions. In Greek and Roman texts, griffins and Arimaspians were associated with gold. Indeed, in later accounts, "griffins were said to lay eggs in burrows on the grounds and these nests contained gold nuggets"
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Mountain Goat
The MOUNTAIN GOAT ( Oreamnos americanus), also known as the ROCKY MOUNTAIN GOAT, is a large hoofed mammal endemic to North America
North America
. A subalpine to alpine species, it is a sure-footed climber commonly seen on cliffs and ice. Despite its vernacular name, it is not a member of Capra , the genus that includes all other goats , such as the wild goat , Capra aegagrus, from which the domestic goat is derived. CONTENTS * 1 Classification and evolution * 2 General appearance and characteristics * 3 Range and habitat * 4 Movement patterns * 5 Diet * 6 Lifecycle and mating * 7 Aggressive behavior * 8 Wool
Wool
* 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links CLASSIFICATION AND EVOLUTIONThe mountain goat is an even-toed ungulate of the order Artiodactyla and the family Bovidae
Bovidae
that includes antelopes , gazelles , and cattle
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