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Paulownia
Six to 17 species, including: Paulownia
Paulownia
catalpifolia Paulownia
Paulownia
elongata Paulownia
Paulownia
fargesii Paulownia
Paulownia
fortunei Paulownia
Paulownia
kawakamii Paulownia
Paulownia
taiwaniana Paulownia
Paulownia
tomentosa Paulownia
Paulownia
is a genus of six to 17 species (depending on taxonomic authority) of flowering plants in the family Paulowniaceae, related to and sometimes included in the Scrophulariaceae. They are present in much of China, south to northern Laos
Laos
and Vietnam
Vietnam
and are long cultivated elsewhere in eastern Asia, notably in Japan
Japan
and Korea
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Pipa
The pipa (Chinese: 琵琶) is a four-stringed Chinese musical instrument, belonging to the plucked category of instruments. Sometimes called the Chinese lute, the instrument has a pear-shaped wooden body with a varying number of frets ranging from 12 to 26. Another Chinese four-string plucked lute is the liuqin, which looks like a smaller version of the pipa. The pear-shaped instrument may have existed in China
China
as early as the Han dynasty, and although historically the term pipa was once used to refer to a variety of plucked chordophones, its usage since the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
refers exclusively to the pear-shaped instrument. The pipa is one of the most popular Chinese instruments and has been played for almost two thousand years in China
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Washington State
Washington (/ˈwɒʃɪŋtən/ ( listen)), officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
region of the United States. Named after George Washington, the first president of the United States, the state was made out of the western part of the Washington Territory, which was ceded by Britain in 1846 in accordance with the Oregon Treaty
Oregon Treaty
in the settlement of the Oregon
Oregon
boundary dispute. It was admitted to the Union as the 42nd state in 1889. Olympia is the state capital. Washington is sometimes referred to as Washington State to distinguish it from Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, which is often shortened to Washington. Washington is the 18th largest state with an area of 71,362 square miles (184,827 km2), and the 13th most populous state with over 7.4 million people
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Capsule (botany)
In botany a capsule is a type of simple, dry rarely fleshy, dehiscent fruit produced by many species of Angiosperms (flowering plants).[1][2]Contents1 Origins and structure 2 Dehiscence 3 Specialised capsules 4 Nuts 5 See also 6 References 7 BibliographyOrigins and structure[edit] The capsule (Latin: capsula, small box) is derived from a compound (multicarpeled) ovary.[2] A capsule is a structure composed of two or more carpels. In (flowering plants), the term locule (or cell) is used to refer to a chamber within the fruit. Depending on the number of locules in the ovary, fruit can be classified as uni-locular (unilocular), bi-locular, tri-locular or multi-locular. The number of locules present in a gynoecium may be equal to or less than the number of carpels. The locules contain the ovules or seeds and are separated by septa. Dehiscence[edit] Main article: Dehiscence (botany) In most cases the capsule is dehiscent, i.e
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Seed
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule, after fertilization by pollen and some growth within the mother plant. The embryo is developed from the zygote and the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule. Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants, relative to more primitive plants such as ferns, mosses and liverworts, which do not have seeds and use water-dependent means to propagate themselves. Seed plants now dominate biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates. The term "seed" also has a general meaning that antedates the above—anything that can be sown, e.g. "seed" potatoes, "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds"
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Tsar
Tsar
Tsar
(/zɑːr/ or /tsɑːr/) (Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь [usually written thus with a title] or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
and the Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism
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Paul I Of Russia
Paul I (Russian: Па́вел I Петро́вич; Pavel Petrovich) (1 October [O.S. 20 September] 1754 – 23 March [O.S. 11 March] 1801) reigned as Emperor
Emperor
of Russia between 1796 and 1801. Officially, he was the only son of Peter III (reigned January to July 1762) (whom he resembled physically and by character) and of Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great
(reigned 1762–96), though Catherine hinted that he was fathered by her lover Sergei Saltykov, who also had Romanov blood, being a descendant of the first Romanov Tsar's sister, Tatiana Feodorovna Romanova.[1] Paul remained overshadowed by his mother for much of his life. His reign lasted five years, ending with his assassination by conspirators
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Wildfire
A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.[1] Depending on the type of vegetation where it occurs, a wildfire can also be classified more specifically as a brush fire, bush fire, desert fire, forest fire, grass fire, hill fire, peat fire, vegetation fire, or veld fire.[2] Fossil
Fossil
charcoal indicates that wildfires began soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants 420 million years ago.[3] Wildfire’s occurrence throughout the history of terrestrial life invites conjecture that fire
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North America
North America
North America
is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.[3][4] It is bordered to the north by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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American Journal Of Botany
The American Journal of Botany
Botany
is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal which covers all aspects of plant biology. It has been published by the Botanical Society of America since 1914. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2012 impact factor of 2.586.[1] Access is available through JSTOR
JSTOR
with a moving wall of 5 years. References[edit]^ "American Journal of Botany". 2012 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2013. External links[edit]Official American Journal of Botany
Botany
websiteThis article about a botany journal is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eSee tips for writing articles about academic journals
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Tertiary
Tertiary is the former term for the geologic period from 65 million to 2.58 million years ago, a timespan that occurs between the superseded Secondary period
Secondary period
and the Quaternary. The Tertiary is no longer recognized as a formal unit by the International Commission on Stratigraphy,[1][2][3][4] but the word is still widely used
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Strata
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface[1], with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. The "stratum" is the fundamental unit in a stratigraphic column and forms the basis of the study of stratigraphy.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Naming 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksCharacteristics[edit]The Permian
Permian
through Jurassic
Jurassic
strata in the Colorado Plateau
Colorado Plateau
area of southeastern Utah
Utah
demonstrates the principles of stratigraphy. These strata make up much of the famous prominent rock formations in widely spaced protected areas such as Capitol Reef National Park
Capitol Reef National Park
and Canyonlands National Park
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Macrofossil
Macrofossils, also known as megafossils, are preserved organic remains large enough to be visible without a microscope.[1] The term macrofossil stands in opposition to the term microfossil. Microfossils, by contrast, require substantial magnification for evaluation by fossil-hunters or professional paleontologists. As a result, most fossils observed in the field and most "museum-quality" specimens are macrofossils.Contents1 Varieties1.1 Plant macrofossils 1.2 Animal macrofossils2 Image gallery 3 ReferencesVarieties[edit] Plant macrofossils[edit] Plant macrofossils include leaf, needle, cone, and stem debris; and can be used to identify types of plants formerly growing in the area. Such botanical macrofossil data provide a valuable complement to pollen and faunal data that can be used to reconstruct the prehistoric terrestrial environment
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Foxglove
Over 20 species, including: Digitalis
Digitalis
canariensis Digitalis
Digitalis
cariensis
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Zanclean
The Zanclean is the lowest stage or earliest age on the geologic time scale of the Pliocene. It spans the time between 5.332 ± 0.005 Ma and 3.6 ± 0.005 Ma (million years ago). It is preceded by the Messinian age of the Miocene
Miocene
epoch, and followed by the Piacenzian age. The Zanclean can be correlated with regionally used stages, such as the Tabianian or Dacian of Central Europe. It also corresponds to the late Hemphillian to mid- Blancan North American Land Mammal Ages. In California, the Zanclean roughly corresponds to the mid-Delmontian Californian Stage of from 7.5 To 2.9 Ma ago.[2]Contents1 Definition 2 Events of the Zanclean 3 References3.1 Notes 3.2 Literature4 External linksDefinition[edit] The Zanclean stage was introduced by Giuseppe Seguenza in 1868
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Pliocene
The Pliocene
Pliocene
( /ˈplaɪəˌsiːn/;[2][3] also Pleiocene[4]) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58[5] million years BP. It is the second and youngest epoch of the Neogene
Neogene
Period in the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era. The Pliocene
Pliocene
follows the Miocene
Miocene
Epoch and is followed by the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Epoch
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