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Paul Blobel
PAUL BLOBEL (13 August 1894 – 7 June 1951) was a German SS commander during the Nazi era
Nazi era
. He is best known as the key figure in organising and executing the Babi Yar
Babi Yar
massacre in 1941. After the war, Blobel was convicted at the Einsatzgruppen Trial and executed. EARLY LIFEBorn in the city of Potsdam
Potsdam
, he fought in the First World War , in which by all accounts he served well, being decorated with the Iron Cross first class. After the war, Blobel studied architecture and practiced this profession from 1924 until 1931, when upon losing his job he joined the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
, the SA , and the SS (he had joined all of these by 1 December 1931). CAREERIn 1933 Blobel joined the police force in Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
. In June 1934 he was recruited into the SD
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Nuremberg Military Tribunal
The SUBSEQUENT NUREMBERG TRIALS (formally the TRIALS OF WAR CRIMINALS BEFORE THE NUREMBERG MILITARY TRIBUNALS) were a series of twelve U.S. military tribunals for war crimes against members of the leadership of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
, held in the Palace of Justice , Nuremberg
Nuremberg
, after World War II from 1946 to 1949 following the Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Trials * 3 Result * 4 Criticism * 4.1 Conduct of the prosecution * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links BACKGROUNDAlthough it had been initially planned to hold more than just one international trial at the IMT, the growing differences between the victorious allies (the United States, United Kingdom, France, and Soviet Union
Soviet Union
) made this impossible. However, the Control Council Law No
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Saul Friedländer
SAUL FRIEDLäNDER (Hebrew : שאול פרידלנדר‎; born October 11, 1932) is an Israeli /American historian and currently a professor emeritus of history at UCLA . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Views * 3 Honors and awards * 4 Published works * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYSaul Friedländer was born in Prague to a family of German-speaking Jews . He grew up in France and experienced the German Occupation of 1940–1944 . From 1942 until 1946, Friedländer was hidden in a Catholic boarding school in Montlucon, near Vichy. While in hiding, he converted to Roman Catholicism and later began preparing for the Catholic priesthood. His parents attempted to flee to Switzerland , were arrested instead by Vichy French gendarmes, turned over to the Germans and were gassed at the Auschwitz concentration camp . Not until 1946 did Friedländer learn the fate of his parents
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Gitta Sereny
GITTA SERENY, CBE (13 March 1921 – 14 June 2012) was an Austrian-British biographer , historian, and investigative journalist who came to be known for her interviews and profiles of controversial figures, including Mary Bell , who was convicted in 1968 of killing two children when she herself was a child, and Franz Stangl , the commandant of the Treblinka extermination camp . Born and initially raised in Austria, she was the author of five books, including The Case of Mary Bell: A Portrait of a Child Who Murdered (1972) and Albert Speer: His Battle with Truth (1995). Sereny was awarded the Duff Cooper Prize and the James Tait Black Memorial Prize for her book on Albert Speer in 1995, and the Stig Dagerman Prize in 2002. She was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 2004 for services to journalism
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Yugoslavia
YUGOSLAVIA ( Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
: Jugoslavija/Југославија ; Slovene : Jugoslavija ; Macedonian : Југославија ) was a country in Southeast Europe during most of the 20th century. It came into existence after World War I
World War I
in 1918 under the name of the KINGDOM OF SERBS, CROATS AND SLOVENES by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (itself formed from territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire ) with the formerly independent Kingdom of Serbia . The Serbian royal House of Karađorđević became the Yugoslav royal dynasty
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Kiev
KIEV (/ˈkiːɛf, -ɛv/ ) or KYIV (Ukrainian : Київ, Kyjiv ( listen ); Old East Slavic : Кыѥвъ, Kyjev; Russian : Киев, Kijev ) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine
Ukraine
, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River . The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974 (though higher estimated numbers have been cited in the press), making Kiev
Kiev
the 7th most populous city in Europe . Kiev
Kiev
is an important industrial, scientific , educational, and cultural centre of Eastern Europe. It is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions and world-famous historical landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and highly developed system of public transport, including the Kiev Metro . The city's name is said to derive from the name of Kyi , one of its four legendary founders (see Name , below)
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Alcoholism
ALCOHOLISM, also known as ALCOHOL USE DISORDER (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems. It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence . In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use. Risky situations include drinking and driving or having unsafe sex among others. Alcohol use can affect all parts of the body but particularly affects the brain, heart, liver, pancreas , and immune system
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Eastern Europe
EASTERN EUROPE is the eastern part of the European continent . There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical , geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region". A related United Nations paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct ". One definition describes Eastern Europe
Europe
as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe
Europe
with the main characteristics consisting of Greek , Byzantine
Byzantine
, Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
, Russian , and some Ottoman culture influences. Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc
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The Years Of Extermination
THE YEARS OF EXTERMINATION: NAZI GERMANY AND THE JEWS, 1939–1945 is the second volume of Saul Friedländer 's history of Nazi Germany and the Jews. It describes the German extermination policies that resulted in the murder of six million European Jews . The book presents a detailed history of the Holocaust and is based on a vast array of documents and memoirs. It won the 2007 Leipzig Book Fair Prize for Non-fiction and won the Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction in 2008. Historian Richard J. Evans , writing in The New York Times said that, though written with academic rigor, "what raises The Years of Extermination to the level of literature, however, is the skilled interweaving of individual testimony with the broader depiction of events." SEE ALSO * Blood and Soil (book) REFERENCES * ^ The Years of Extermination * ^ Richard J. Evans (June 24, 2007). "Whose Orders?"
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Christopher Browning
CHRISTOPHER ROBERT BROWNING (born May 22, 1944) is an American historian , known best for his works on the Holocaust . Browning received his bachelor's degree from Oberlin College
Oberlin College
in 1968 and his doctorate from the University of Wisconsin–Madison
University of Wisconsin–Madison
in 1975. He taught at Pacific Lutheran University
Pacific Lutheran University
from 1974 to 1999, eventually becoming a Distinguished Professor. In 1999, he moved to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
to accept an appointment as Frank Porter Graham Professor of History. Browning was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
in 2006. Browning retired from teaching in Spring 2014
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The Holocaust In Lithuania
THE HOLOCAUST IN NAZI-OCCUPIED LITHUANIA resulted in the near total destruction of Lithuanian Jews
Lithuanian Jews
(Litvaks), living in Generalbezirk Litauen of Reichskommissariat Ostland
Reichskommissariat Ostland
within the Nazi-controlled Lithuanian SSR . Out of approximately 208,000-210,000 Jews, an estimated 190,000–195,000 were murdered before the end of World War II (wider estimates are sometimes published), most between June and December 1941. More than 95% of Lithuania's Jewish
Jewish
population was massacred over the three-year German occupation — a more complete destruction than befell any other country affected by the Holocaust. Historians attribute this to the massive collaboration in the genocide by the non- Jewish
Jewish
local paramilitaries, though the reasons for this collaboration are still debated
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The Holocaust In Norway
In 1941–1942 during the occupation of Norway
Norway
by Nazi
Nazi
Germany, there were at least 2,173 Jews in Norway. At least 775 of them were arrested, detained and/or deported. More than half of the Norwegians who died in camps in Germany were Jews. 742 Jews were murdered in the camps and 23 Jews died as a result of extrajudicial execution, murder and suicide during the war, bringing the total of Jewish Norwegian dead to at least 765 Jews, comprising 230 complete households. "Nearly two-thirds of the Jews in Norway
Norway
fled from Norway". Of these, around 900 Jews were smuggled out of the country by the Norwegian resistance movement , mostly to Sweden but some also to the United Kingdom ). Between 28 and 34 of those deported survived their continued imprisonment in camps (following their deportation)—and around 25 (of these) returned to Norway
Norway
after the war
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The Holocaust In Russia
THE HOLOCAUST IN RUSSIA refers to the Nazi crimes during the occupation of Russia ( Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic ) by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
. CONTENTS * 1 On the eve of the Holocaust
Holocaust
* 2 World War II
World War II
* 3 After World War II
World War II
* 4 Perpetrators and commanders * 5 Executor units * 5.1 German security and police units * 5.2 Volunteers in German armed forces * 5.3 Collaborationist parties * 5.3.1 European front * 5.3.2 Pacific front * 6 See also * 7 References ON THE EVE OF THE HOLOCAUST Russia . Jewish women and children being forced out of their homes
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The Holocaust In Estonia
THE HOLOCAUST IN ESTONIA refers to the Nazi crimes during the occupation of Estonia
Estonia
by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
. Prior to the war, there were approximately 4,300 Estonian Jews . After the Soviet 1940 occupation about 10% of the Jewish population was deported to Siberia
Siberia
, along with other Estonians
Estonians
. About 75% of Estonian Jews, aware of the fate that awaited them from Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
, escaped to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
; virtually all of those who remained (between 950 and 1,000 people) were killed by Einsatzgruppe A and local collaborators before the end of 1941. Roma people of Estonia
Estonia
were also murdered and enslaved by the Nazi occupiers and their collaborators
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