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Paul Baran
PAUL BARAN (/ˈbærən/ ; April 29, 1926 – March 26, 2011) was a Polish-born American engineer who was a pioneer in the development of computer networks . He was one of the two independent inventors of packet switched computer networking , and went on to start several companies and develop other technologies that are an essential part of modern digital communication. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Packet switched network design * 2.1 Selling the idea * 3 Later work * 4 Death * 5 Awards and honors * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFE Paul Baran
Paul Baran
was born in Grodno
Grodno
(then Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
, now part of Belarus
Belarus
) on April 29, 1926. He was the youngest of three children in a Polish-Jewish family, with the Yiddish
Yiddish
given name "Pesach"
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Nuclear Weapon
A NUCLEAR WEAPON is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions , either fission (fission bomb ) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb ). Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first test of a fission ("atomic") bomb released an amount of energy approximately equal to 20,000 tons of TNT (84 TJ ). The first thermonuclear ("hydrogen") bomb test released energy approximately equal to 10 million tons of TNT (42 PJ). A thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds (1,100 kg) can release energy equal to more than 1.2 million tons of TNT (5.0 PJ). A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate an entire city by blast, fire, and radiation . Since they are weapons of mass destruction , the proliferation of nuclear weapons is a focus of international relations policy
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Cold War
The COLD WAR was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its satellite states ) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States
United States
, its NATO allies and others). Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine , a U.S. foreign policy pledging to aid nations threatened by Soviet expansionism, was announced, and either 1989, when communism fell in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, or 1991, when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
collapsed . The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional wars known as proxy wars
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High Frequency
HIGH FREQUENCY (HF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) between 3 and 30 megahertz (MHz). It is also known as the DECAMETER BAND or DECAMETER WAVE as its wavelengths range from one to ten decameters (ten to one hundred metres). Frequencies immediately below HF are denoted medium frequency (MF), while the next band of higher frequencies is known as the very high frequency (VHF) band. The HF band is a major part of the shortwave band of frequencies, so communication at these frequencies is often called shortwave radio . Because radio waves in this band can be reflected back to Earth by the ionosphere layer in the atmosphere – a method known as "skip" or "skywave " propagation – these frequencies are suitable for long-distance communication across intercontinental distances
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Rome Air Development Center
1956-tbd: Floyd Test Annex --5 mi (8.0 km) from GAFB tbd: Newport Antenna Measurement Facility 1956-tbd: Verona Test Annex 1955-61: Laredo Test Site (to ADC ) 1958-61: Trinidad
Trinidad
Space Communication Facility (to Patrick AFB ) tbd-62: Carrabelle Experimental Annex (to Eglin AFB ) 1962-5: Syracuse BMEWS Test Facility ROME LABORATORY (ROME AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER until 1991) is the US "Air Force 'superlab' for command, control , and communications" research and development and is responsible for planning and executing the USAF science and technology program. CONTENTS * 1 Organization * 2 History * 2.1 RADC * 2.1.1 AFCCDD assignment * 2.1.2 RTD assignment * 2.1.3 ESD assignment * 2.2 Rome Laboratory * 3 References ORGANIZATIONRome Lab is organized by tbd : THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it
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Gerald Estrin
GERALD ESTRIN (September 9, 1921 – March 29, 2012) was an American computer scientist, and Professor at the UCLA
UCLA
Computer Science Department. He is known for his work on the organization of computer systems, on parallel processing and SARA (system architects apprentice). CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Institute for Advanced Study
Institute for Advanced Study
* 3 UCLA
UCLA
* 4 Personal life * 5 Selected publications * 6 References EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONEstrin was born in New York City
New York City
in 1921. He met his future wife Thelma Austern in 1941 at City College, New York and they were married when he was 20 and she was 17. Estrin entered the Army during World War II , after which he and Thelma Estrin entered the University of Wisconsin-Madison , where they both earned degrees in Electrical Engineering
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Hughes Aircraft
The HUGHES AIRCRAFT COMPANY was a major American aerospace and defense contractor founded in 1932 by Howard Hughes
Howard Hughes
in Glendale, California as a division of Hughes Tool Company
Hughes Tool Company
. The company was known for producing, among other products, the Hughes H-4 Hercules Spruce Goose aircraft, the atmospheric entry probe carried by the Galileo spacecraft , and the AIM-4 Falcon
AIM-4 Falcon
guided missile. Hughes Aircraft was acquired by General Motors
General Motors
from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in 1985 and was put under the umbrella of Hughes Electronics, now known as DirecTV
DirecTV
, until GM sold its assets to Raytheon
Raytheon
in 1997
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Boston
BOSTON (/ˈbɒstən/ ( listen ) BOSS-tən ) is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles (124 km2) with an estimated population of 687,584 in 2017, making it also the most populous city in the New England
New England
region of the northeastern United States
United States
. Boston
Boston
is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999. The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston , a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country
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Electrical Engineering
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity , electronics , and electromagnetism . This field first became an identifiable occupation in the later half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph , the telephone , and electric power distribution and use. Subsequently, broadcasting and recording media made electronics part of daily life. The invention of the transistor , and later the integrated circuit , brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in almost any household object. Electrical engineering
Electrical engineering
has now subdivided into a wide range of subfields including electronics , digital computers , computer engineering , power engineering , telecommunications , control systems , radio-frequency engineering , signal processing , instrumentation , and microelectronics
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UNIVAC
UNIVAC
UNIVAC
is the name of a line of electronic digital stored-program computers starting with the products of the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation . Later the name was applied to a division of the Remington Rand
Remington Rand
company and successor organizations. UNIVAC
UNIVAC
is an acronym for UNIVersal Automatic Computer. The BINAC , built by the Eckert-Mauchly Computer
Computer
Corporation, was the first general-purpose computer for commercial use. The descendants of the later UNIVAC 1107 continue today as products of the Unisys company. CONTENTS * 1 Univac history and structure * 2 Models * 3 Operating systems * 4 Trademark * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links UNIVAC
UNIVAC
HISTORY AND STRUCTURE UNIVAC
UNIVAC
Sperry Rand label J
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National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom)
The NATIONAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY (NPL) is the national measurement standards laboratory for the United Kingdom, based at Bushy Park
Bushy Park
in Teddington
Teddington
, London, England. It is the largest applied physics organisation in the UK. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Operation * 3 Buildings * 4 Researchers * 5 Directors of NPL * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DESCRIPTION The electricity Division of the National Physical Laboratory in 1944 NPL is an internationally respected centre of excellence in measurement and materials science . Since 1900, when Bushy House
Bushy House
was selected as the site of NPL, it has developed and maintained the primary national measurement standards
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the UK includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to its east, the English Channel
English Channel
to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world
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Martin Hellman
MARTIN EDWARD HELLMAN (born October 2, 1945) is an American cryptologist , best known for his invention of public key cryptography in cooperation with Whitfield Diffie
Whitfield Diffie
and Ralph Merkle . Hellman is a longtime contributor to the computer privacy debate, has applied risk analysis to a potential failure of nuclear deterrence , and (as of July 2016) is writing a book with his wife that links stopping fighting at home to bringing peace to the planet. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Public key cryptography
Public key cryptography
* 4 Computer privacy debate * 5 International security * 5.1 Beyond War * 5.2 Breakthrough * 5.3 Defusing the nuclear threat * 6 Awards and honors * 7 References * 8 External links EARLY LIFEHellman graduated from the Bronx High School of Science
Bronx High School of Science

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Whitfield Diffie
BAILEY WHITFIELD \'WHIT\' DIFFIE (born June 5, 1944) is an American cryptographer and one of the pioneers of public-key cryptography . Diffie and Martin Hellman 's 1976 paper New Directions in Cryptography introduced a radically new method of distributing cryptographic keys, that helped solve key distribution —a fundamental problem in cryptography. Their technique became known as Diffie–Hellman key exchange . The article stimulated the almost immediate public development of a new class of encryption algorithms, the asymmetric key algorithms . After a long career at Sun Microsystems , where he became a Sun Fellow , Diffie served for two and a half years as Vice President for Information Security and Cryptography
Cryptography
at the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (2010–2012)
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Stanford University
STANFORD UNIVERSITY (STANFORD; officially LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIVERSITY , colloquially THE FARM) is a private research university in Stanford , California
California
, adjacent to Palo Alto
Palo Alto
and between San Jose and San Francisco
San Francisco
. Its 8,180-acre (12.8 sq mi; 33.1 km2) campus is one of the largest in the United States
United States
. Stanford's undergraduate program is the most selective in America. Due to its academic strength, wealth, and proximity to Silicon Valley it is often cited as one of the world's most prestigious universities. The university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford
Jane Stanford
in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr. , who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year
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Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE (ATM) is, according to the ATM Forum , "a telecommunications concept defined by ANSI and ITU (formerly CCITT) standards for carriage of a complete range of user traffic, including voice , data , and video signals". ATM was developed to meet the needs of the Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network , as defined in the late 1980s, and designed to unify telecommunication and computer networks . It was designed for a network that must handle both traditional high-throughput data traffic (e.g., file transfers), and real-time , low-latency content such as voice and video. The reference model for ATM approximately maps to the three lowest layers of the ISO -OSI reference model : network layer , data link layer , and physical layer
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