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Paul Baran
Paul Baran
Paul Baran
(/ˈbærən/; April 29, 1926 – March 26, 2011) was a Polish-born Jewish American engineer who was a pioneer in the development of computer networks. He was one of the two independent inventors of packet switching,[2] which is today the dominant basis for data communications in computer networks worldwide, and went on to start several companies and develop other technologies that are an essential part of modern digital communication.Contents1 Early life 2 Packet switched network design2.1 Selling the idea3 Later work 4 Death 5 Awards and honors 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksEarly life[edit] Paul Baran
Paul Baran
was born in Grodno
Grodno
(then Second Polish Republic, now part of Belarus) on April 29, 1926.[3][4] He was the youngest of three children in a Polish-Jewish family,[5] with the Yiddish
Yiddish
given name "Pesach"
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UNIVAC
UNIVAC
UNIVAC
(Universal Automatic Computer) is a line of electronic digital stored-program computers starting with the products of the Eckert–Mauchly Computer
Computer
Corporation. Later the name was applied to a division of the Remington Rand
Remington Rand
company and successor organizations. The BINAC, built by the Eckert–Mauchly Computer
Computer
Corporation, was the first general-purpose computer for commercial use. The descendants of the later UNIVAC 1107
UNIVAC 1107
continue today as products of the Unisys company.Contents1 Univac history and structure 2 Models 3 Operating systems 4 Trademark 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksUnivac history and structure[edit] UNIVAC
UNIVAC
Sperry Rand label J
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National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom)
The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) is the national measurement standards laboratory for the United Kingdom, based at Bushy Park
Bushy Park
in Teddington, London, England. It is the largest applied physics organisation in the UK.Contents1 Description 2 Operation 3 Buildings 4 Researchers 5 Research5.1 Atomic clocks 5.2 Computing 5.3 Packet switching6 Directors of NPL 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksDescription[edit]The electricity Division of the National Physical Laboratory in 1944NPL is known for its UK leadership in measurement and materials science. Since 1900, when Bushy House
Bushy House
was selected as the site of NPL, it has developed and maintained the primary national measurement standards
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High Frequency
High frequency
High frequency
(HF) is the ITU designation[1] for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) between 3 and 30 megahertz (MHz). It is also known as the decameter band or decameter wave as its wavelengths range from one to ten decameters (ten to one hundred metres). Frequencies immediately below HF are denoted medium frequency (MF), while the next band of higher frequencies is known as the very high frequency (VHF) band. The HF band is a major part of the shortwave band of frequencies, so communication at these frequencies is often called shortwave radio. Because radio waves in this band can be reflected back to Earth by the ionosphere layer in the atmosphere – a method known as "skip" or "skywave" propagation – these frequencies are suitable for long-distance communication across intercontinental distances
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Cold War
The Cold War
Cold War
was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
(the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc
Western Bloc
(the United States, its NATO allies and others). Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine, a U.S. foreign policy pledging to aid nations threatened by Soviet expansionism, was announced, and either 1989, when communism fell in Eastern Europe, or 1991, when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
collapsed
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Nuclear Weapon
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb). Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first test of a fission ("atomic") bomb released an amount of energy approximately equal to 20,000 tons of TNT (84 TJ). The first thermonuclear ("hydrogen") bomb test released energy approximately equal to 10 million tons of TNT (42 PJ).[1] A thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds (1,100 kg) can release energy equal to more than 1.2 million tons of TNT (5.0 PJ).[2] A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate an entire city by blast, fire, and radiation
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Gerald Estrin
Gerald Estrin (September 9, 1921 – March 29, 2012)[1] was an American computer scientist, and Professor at the UCLA Computer Science Department. He is known for his work on the organization of computer systems, on parallel processing[2] and SARA (system architects apprentice).[3]Contents1 Early life and education 2 Institute for Advanced Study 3 UCLA 4 Personal life 5 Selected publications 6 ReferencesEarly life and education[edit] Estrin was born in New York City in 1921. He met his future wife Thelma Austern in 1941 at City College, New York and they were married when he was 20 and she was 17. Estrin entered the Army during World War II, after which he and Thelma Estrin entered the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where they both earned degrees in Electrical Engineering. Estrin received his B.S, M.S. and Ph.D
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Hughes Aircraft
The Hughes Aircraft Company
Hughes Aircraft Company
was a major American aerospace and defense contractor founded in 1932 by Howard Hughes
Howard Hughes
in Glendale, California[1] as a division of Hughes Tool Company
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe
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Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company
The Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation (EMCC) (March 1946 – 1950) was founded by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly. It was incorporated on December 22, 1947. After building the ENIAC at the University of Pennsylvania, Eckert and Mauchly formed EMCC to build new computer designs for commercial and military applications. The company was initially called the Electronic Control Company, changing its name to Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation when it was incorporated. In 1950, the company was sold to Remington Rand, which later merged with Sperry Corporation to become Sperry Rand, and survives today as Unisys.Contents1 Founding 2 UNIVAC2.1 Accusations of communist infiltration3 BINAC and fiscal difficulties 4 Sale to Remington Rand 5 References 6 External linksFounding[edit] Before founding Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, Mauchly researched the computing needs of potential clients
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Electrical Engineering
Electrical engineering
Electrical engineering
is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the later half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electric power distribution and use. Subsequently, broadcasting and recording media made electronics part of daily life. The invention of the transistor, and later the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in almost any household object. Electrical engineering
Electrical engineering
has now subdivided into a wide range of subfields including electronics, digital computers, computer engineering, power engineering, telecommunications, control systems, robotics, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing, instrumentation, and microelectronics
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Boston
Boston
Boston
(/ˈbɒstən/ ( listen) BOS-tən) is the capital city and most populous municipality[9] of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States
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Yiddish
Yiddish
Yiddish
(ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, lit. "Jewish", pronounced [ˈjɪdɪʃ] [ˈɪdɪʃ]; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, lit. Judaeo-German)[3] is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century[4] in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages
Slavic languages
and traces of Romance languages.[5][6] Yiddish
Yiddish
is written with a fully vocalized version of the Hebrew alphabet. The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז‎ (loshn-ashknaz, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש‎ (taytsh), a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German
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Polish Jews
The history of the Jews
Jews
in Poland
Poland
dates back over 1,000 years. For centuries, Poland
Poland
was home to the largest and most significant Jewish community in the world. Poland
Poland
was the centre of Jewish
Jewish
culture, thanks to a long period of statutory religious tolerance and social autonomy. This ended with the Partitions of Poland
Poland
which began in 1772, in particular, with the discrimination and persecution of Jews in the Russian Empire. During World War II
World War II
there was a nearly complete genocidal destruction of the Polish Jewish
Jewish
community by Nazi Germany and its collaborators, during the 1939–1945 German occupation of Poland
Poland
and the ensuing Holocaust
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Advanced Research Projects Agency
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military. Originally known as the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the agency was created in February 1958 by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik 1 in 1957. Since its inception, the agency's mission is ensuring that the United States avoids further technological surprise.[3] By collaborating with academic, industry, and government partners, DARPA formulates and executes research and development projects to expand the frontiers of technology and science, often beyond immediate U.S
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Link-state Routing
Link-state routing protocols are one of the two main classes of routing protocols used in packet switching networks for computer communications, the other being distance-vector routing protocols. Examples of link-state routing protocols include Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and intermediate system to intermediate system (IS-IS). The link-state protocol is performed by every switching node in the network (i.e., nodes that are prepared to forward packets; in the Internet, these are called routers). The basic concept of link-state routing is that every node constructs a map of the connectivity to the network, in the form of a graph, showing which nodes are connected to which other nodes. Each node then independently calculates the next best logical path from it to every possible destination in the network
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