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Partition Of India
The Partition of India
India
was the division of British India[a] in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India
India
and Pakistan.[1] The Dominion
Dominion
of India
India
is today the Republic of India, and the Dominion
Dominion
of Pakistan
Pakistan
is today the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Pakistan
Pakistan
and the People's Republic of Bangladesh. The partition involved the division of three provinces, Assam, Bengal
Bengal
and the Punjab, based on district-wide Hindu
Hindu
or Muslim
Muslim
majorities
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The Imperial Gazetteer Of India
The Imperial Gazetteer
Gazetteer
of India was a gazetteer of the British Indian Empire, and is now a historical reference work. It was first published in 1881. Sir William Wilson Hunter
William Wilson Hunter
made the original plans of the book, starting in 1869. The 1908, 1909 and 1931 "New Editions" have four encyclopaedic volumes covering the geography, history, economics, and administration of India, 20 volumes of the alphabetically arranged gazetteer, listing places' names and giving statistics and summary information, and one volume each comprising the index and atlas. The New Editions were all published by the Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.Contents1 Editions 2 References 3 Further reading 4 External linksEditions[edit] The first edition of The Imperial Gazetteer
Gazetteer
of India was published in nine volumes in 1881. A second edition, augmented to fourteen volumes, was issued in the years 1885–87
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Delhi Sultanate
The Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
(Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu:دہلی سلیٹیٹ) was a Muslim
Muslim
sultanate based mostly in Delhi
Delhi
that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
for 320 years (1206–1526).[5][6] Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty (1206–90), the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty
Tughlaq dynasty
(1320–1414),[7] the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty
Lodi dynasty
(1451–1526)
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Karkota Empire
Karkota Empire
Karkota Empire
(c. 625 - 885 CE) was a major power from the Indian subcontinent; which originated in the region of Kashmir.[1] It was founded by Durlabhvardhana during the lifetime of Harshavardhan. The dynasty marked the rise of Kashmir
Kashmir
as a power in Northern India.[2] Avanti Varman ascended the throne of Kashmir
Kashmir
on 855 A.D., establishing the Utpala dynasty and ending the rule of Karkota dynasty.[3] Lalitaditya Muktapida, the dynasty's strongest ruler captured parts of Central Asia, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Punjab
Punjab
with Chinese help.[4] According to Kalhana's Rajatarangini, Lalitaditya was able to extend the power of Kashmir
Kashmir
beyond the normal mountain limits and in about 740 AD inflicted a defeat upon Yashovarman, the King of Kannauj
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Caliphate Campaigns In India
A caliphate (Arabic: خِلافة‎ khilāfah) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (/ˈkælɪf, ˈkeɪ-/, Arabic: خَليفة‎ khalīfah,  pronunciation (help·info)), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and a leader of the entire Muslim
Muslim
community.[1] Historically, the caliphates were polities based in Islam
Islam
which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires.[2] During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
(632–661), the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
(661–750) and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258)
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Tripartite Struggle
The Tripartite Struggle
Tripartite Struggle
for control of northern India took place in the ninth century. The struggle was between the Pratihara Empire, the Pala Empire
Pala Empire
and the Rashtrakuta Empire.[1]:20Part of a series on theHistory of IndiaAncientMadrasian Culture Soanian, c. 500,000 BCE Neolithic, c. 7600 – c. 3300 BCE Bhirrana
Bhirrana
7570 - 6200 BCE Jhusi
Jhusi
7106 BCE Lahuradewa 7000 BCE Mehrgarh
Mehrgarh
7000 - 2600 BCEIndus Valley Civilization, c. 3300 – c. 1700 BCE Post Indus Valley Period, c. 1700 – c. 1500 BCE Vedic Civilization, c. 1500 – c. 500 BCEEarly Vedic PeriodRise of Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
movementLater Vedic PeriodSpread of Jainism - Parshvanatha Spread of Jainism - Mahavira Rise of BuddhismMahajanapadas, c. 500 – c. 345 BCE Nanda Dynasty, c. 345 – c
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Gurjara-Pratihara
The Gurjara- Pratihara
Pratihara
dynasty, also known as the Pratihara
Pratihara
Empire, was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled much of Northern India
India
from the mid-7th to the 11th century. They ruled first at Ujjain
Ujjain
and later at Kannauj.[1] The Gurjara-Pratiharas were instrumental in containing Arab
Arab
armies moving east of the Indus River.[2] Nagabhata I defeated the Arab
Arab
army under Junaid and Tamin
Tamin
during the Caliphate campaigns in India. Under Nagabhata II, the Gurjara-Pratiharas became the most powerful dynasty in northern India. He was succeeded by his son Ramabhadra, who ruled briefly before being succeeded by his son, Mihira Bhoja
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Rashtrakuta Dynasty
Rashtrakuta (IAST: rāṣṭrakūṭa) was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
between the sixth and 10th centuries. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant detailing their rule from Manapura, a city in Central or West India. Other ruling Rashtrakuta clans from the same period mentioned in inscriptions were the kings of Achalapur (modern Elichpur in Maharashtra) and the rulers of Kannauj. Several controversies exist regarding the origin of these early Rashtrakutas, their native home and their language. The Elichpur clan was a feudatory of the Badami
Badami
Chalukyas, and during the rule of Dantidurga, it overthrew Chalukya Kirtivarman II and went on to build an empire with the Gulbarga
Gulbarga
region in modern Karnataka
Karnataka
as its base
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Medieval Cholas
Medieval Cholas
Cholas
rose to prominence during the middle of the 9th century CE and established one of the greatest empires in South India. They successfully united South India
India
under their rule and through their naval strength extended their influence in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and Sri Lanka. They had trade contacts with the Arabs in the west and with the Chinese in the east. Medieval Cholas
Cholas
and Chalukyas
Chalukyas
were continuously in conflict over the control of Vengi and the conflict eventually exhausted both the empires and led to their decline
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Western Chalukya Empire
The Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries. This Kannadiga
Kannadiga
dynasty is sometimes called the Kalyani Chalukya
Chalukya
after its regal capital at Kalyani, today's Basavakalyan
Basavakalyan
in the modern Bidar District of Karnataka
Karnataka
state, and alternatively the Later Chalukya
Chalukya
from its theoretical relationship to the 6th-century Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
of Badami
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Mamluk Dynasty (Delhi)
in Anatolia Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid dynasty Zengid dynastyThis box:view talk editThe Mamluk
Mamluk
Dynasty (sometimes referred as Slave Dynasty or Ghulam Dynasty) (Persian: سلطنت مملوک‎), (Urdu: غلام خاندان‎) was directed into Northern India
India
by Qutb ud-Din Aibak, a Turkic Mamluk
Mamluk
slave general from Central Asia
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Gupta Empire
The Gupta Empire
Empire
was an ancient Indian empire, which existed at its zenith from approximately 240 to 605 CE and covered much of the Indian subcontinent.[1] This period is called the Golden Age
Golden Age
of India.[2][note 1] The ruling dynasty of the empire was founded by Sri Gupta; the most notable rulers of the dynasty were Chandragupta I, Samudragupta, and Chandragupta II. The 5th-century CE Sanskrit
Sanskrit
poet Kalidasa
Kalidasa
credits the Guptas with having conquered about twenty-one kingdoms, both in and outside India, including the kingdoms of Parasikas, the Hunas, the Kambojas, tribes located in the west and east Oxus
Oxus
valleys, the Kinnaras, Kiratas, and others.[4][non-primary source needed] The high points of this period are the great cultural developments which took place during the reign of Chandragupta II
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Khalji Dynasty
The Khalji or Khilji[a] dynasty was a Muslim
Muslim
dynasty which ruled large parts of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
between 1290 and 1320.[2][3][4] It was founded by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji
Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji
and became the second dynasty to rule the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
of India
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Tughlaq Dynasty
in Anatolia Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid dynasty Zengid dynastyThis box:view talk edit Delhi
Delhi
SultanateRuling dynasties Mamluk
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Sayyid Dynasty
The Sayyid
Sayyid
dynasty was the fourth dynasty of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, with four rulers ruling from 1414 to 1451. Founded by a former governor of Multan, they succeeded the Tughlaq dynasty
Tughlaq dynasty
and ruled the sultanate until they were displaced by the Lodi dynasty. Members of the dynasty derived their title, Sayyid, or the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad, based on the claim that they belonged to the Prophet's lineage through his daughter Fatima, and son-in-law and cousin Ali.Contents1 History 2 Kings2.1 Khizr Khan 2.2 Mubarak Shah 2.3 Muhammad Shah 2.4 Ala-ud-din Alam Shah3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Following the 1398 Sack of Delhi, Amir Timur
Timur
appointed the Sayyids as the governors of Delhi
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Lodi Dynasty
The Lodi dynasty
Lodi dynasty
(or Lodhi) was an Afghan[1] dynasty that ruled the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate from 1451 to 1526
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