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Part 15
CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS , TITLE 47, PART 15 (47 CFR 15) is an oft-quoted part of Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) rules and regulations regarding unlicensed transmissions . It is a part of Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations
Code of Federal Regulations
(CFR), and regulates everything from spurious emissions to unlicensed low-power broadcasting . Nearly every electronics device sold inside the United States
United States
radiates unintentional emissions, and must be reviewed to comply with Part 15 before it can be advertised or sold in the US market
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Electrical Ballast
An ELECTRICAL BALLAST is a device placed in line with the load to limit the amount of current in an electrical circuit . It may be a fixed or variable resistor. A familiar and widely used example is the inductive ballast used in fluorescent lamps to limit the current through the tube, which would otherwise rise to a destructive level due to the negative differential resistance artifact in the tube's voltage-current characteristic. Ballasts vary greatly in complexity. They may be as simple as a resistor , inductor or capacitor (or a combination of these) wired in series with the lamp; or as complex as the electronic ballasts used in compact fluorescent lamps and high-intensity discharge lamps
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Fluorescent Light
A FLUORESCENT LAMP or a FLUORESCENT TUBE is a low pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light. An electric current in the gas excites mercury vapor which produces short-wave ultraviolet light that then causes a phosphor coating on the inside of the lamp to glow . A fluorescent lamp converts electrical energy into useful light much more efficiently than incandescent lamps . The typical luminous efficacy of fluorescent lighting systems is 50–100 lumens per watt, several times the efficacy of incandescent bulbs with comparable light output. Fluorescent
Fluorescent
lamp fixtures are more costly than incandescent lamps because they require a ballast to regulate the current through the lamp, but the lower energy cost typically offsets the higher initial cost. Compact fluorescent lamps are now available in the same popular sizes as incandescents and are used as an energy-saving alternative in homes
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Campus
A CAMPUS is traditionally the land on which a college or university and related institutional buildings are situated. Usually a college campus includes libraries , lecture halls, residence halls , student centers or dining halls, and park-like settings. A modern campus is a collection of buildings and grounds that belong to a given institution, either academic or non-academic. Examples include the Googleplex
Googleplex
and the Apple Campus
Apple Campus
. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Uses * 3.1 Office buildings * 3.2 Universities * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word derives from a Latin
Latin
word for "field" and was first used to describe the large field adjacent Nassau Hall of the College
College
of New Jersey (now Princeton University
University
) in 1774
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Microvolt
The VOLT (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential , electric potential difference (voltage ), and electromotive force . It is named after the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745–1827). CONTENTS* 1 Definition * 1.1 Josephson junction definition * 2 Water-flow analogy * 3 Common voltages * 4 History * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links DEFINITIONOne volt is defined as the difference in electric potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those points. It is also equal to the potential difference between two parallel, infinite planes spaced 1 meter apart that create an electric field of 1 newton per coulomb . Additionally, it is the potential difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it
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Peripheral Device
A PERIPHERAL is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer ". There are three different types of peripherals: * input devices , which interact with or send data from the user to the computer (mice, keyboards, etc.) * output devices , which provide output to the user from the computer (monitors, printers, etc.) * input/output devices that perform both functions.Touchscreens are an example that combines different devices into a single hardware component that can be used both as an input and output device. A peripheral device is generally defined as any auxiliary device such as a computer mouse or keyboard that connects to and works with the computer in some way. Other examples of peripherals are image scanners , tape drives , microphones , loudspeakers , webcams , and digital cameras
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Personal Computer
A PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. PCs are intended to be operated directly by an end user , rather than by a computer expert or technician. Computer
Computer
time-sharing models that were typically used with larger, more expensive minicomputer and mainframe systems, to enable them be used by many people at the same time, are not used with PCs. Early computer owners in the 1960s, invariably institutional or corporate, had to write their own programs to do any useful work with the machines. In the 2010s, personal computer users have access to a wide range of commercial software , free software ("freeware ") and free and open-source software , which are provided in ready-to-run form. Software
Software
for personal computers is typically developed and distributed independently from the hardware or OS manufacturers
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Code Of Federal Regulations
The CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law ) published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States . The CFR is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to federal regulation. The CFR annual edition is the codification of the general and permanent rules published by the Office of the Federal Register (part of the National Archives and Records Administration) and the Government Publishing Office. In addition to this annual edition, the CFR is published in an unofficial format online on the Electronic CFR website, which is updated daily
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TV-band Device
TV BAND DEVICES or TVBDs are new unlicensed radio frequency devices operating in the vacant channels or white spaces between US television channels in the range of 54 to 698 MHz. The rules defining these devices were announced on November 4, 2008, and published by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in a Second Report and Order on November 14, 2008. The rules were finalized in a Second Memorandum Opinion and Order on September 23, 2010. Much of the work behind the definition of these devices was done by the White Spaces Coalition
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Television Channel
A TELEVISION CHANNEL is a physical or virtual channel over which a television station or television network is distributed. For example, in North America
North America
, "channel 2" refers to the broadcast or cable band of 54 to 60 MHz
MHz
, with carrier frequencies of 55.25 MHz
MHz
for NTSC analog video (VSB ) and 59.75 MHz
MHz
for analog audio (FM ), or 55.31 MHz for digital ATSC ( 8VSB ). Channels may be shared by many different television stations or cable-distributed channels depending on the location and service provider Depending on the multinational bandplan for a given region, analog television channels are typically 6, 7, or 8 MHz
MHz
in bandwidth , and therefore television channel frequencies vary as well. Channel numbering is also different
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North American Broadcast Television Frequencies
NORTH AMERICAN TELEVISION FREQUENCIES are different for over-the-air (also called terrestrial) and cable television systems. Over-the-air television channels are divided into two bands: the VHF band which comprises channels 2 through 13 and occupies frequencies between 54 and 216 MHz, and the UHF band, which comprises channels 14 through 83 and occupies frequencies between 470 and 890 MHz. These bands are different enough in frequency that they often require separate antennas to receive (although many antennas cover both VHF and UHF), and separate tuning controls on the television set. The VHF band is further divided into two frequency ranges: VHF low band ( Band I ) between 54 and 88 MHz, containing channels 2 through 6, and VHF high band ( Band III ) between 174 and 216 MHz, containing channels 7 through 13. The wide spacing between these frequency bands is responsible for the complicated design of rooftop TV antennas
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FM Broadcast Band
The FM BROADCAST BAND, used for FM broadcast radio by radio stations , differs between different parts of the world. In Europe, Australia
Australia
and Africa ((defined as International Telecommunication Union (ITU) region 1)), it spans from 87.5 to 108 megahertz (MHz) - also known as VHF Band II - while in the Americas ( ITU region 2) it ranges from 88 to 108 MHz. The FM broadcast band in Japan
Japan
uses 76 to 95 MHz. The International Radio and Television Organisation
International Radio and Television Organisation
(OIRT) band in Eastern Europe
Europe
is from 65.8 to 74.0 MHz, although these countries now primarily use the 87.5 to 108 MHz band, as in the case of Russia
Russia
. Some other countries have already discontinued the OIRT band and have changed to the 87.5 to 108 MHz band
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Field Strength
In physics , FIELD STRENGTH means the magnitude of a vector -valued field (e.g., in volts per meter, V/m, for an electric field E). For example, electromagnetic field results in both electric field strength and magnetic field strength . As an application, in radio frequency telecommunications , the signal strength excites a receiving antenna and thereby induce a voltage at a specific frequency and polarization in order to provide an input signal to a radio receiver. Field strength meter s are used for such applications as cellular, broadcasting, wi-fi and a wide variety of other radio-related applications. SEE ALSO * Dipole field strength in free space * Field strength tensor
Field strength tensor
REFERENCES This physics -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Very High Frequency
VERY HIGH FREQUENCY (VHF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves ) from 30 to 300 megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten to one meters. Frequencies immediately below VHF are denoted high frequency (HF), and the next higher frequencies are known as ultra high frequency (UHF). Common uses for VHF are FM radio broadcasting, television broadcasting, two way land mobile radio systems (emergency, business, private use and military), long range data communication up to several tens of kilometers with radio modems , amateur radio , and marine communications . Air traffic control communications and air navigation systems (e.g. VOR unlike in the HF band there is only some reflection at lower frequencies from the ionosphere (skywave propagation)
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Band I
BAND I is a range of radio frequencies within the very high frequency (VHF) part of the electromagnetic spectrum . Band I ranges from 47 to 68 MHz
MHz
for the European Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Area, and from 54 to 88 MHz
MHz
for the Americas and it is primarily used for broadcasting service (television broadcasting ) in line to ITU Radio Regulations (article 1.38). Channel spacings vary from country to country, with spacings of 6, 7 and 8 MHz
MHz
being common
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Tuner (radio)
A TUNER is a subsystem that receives radio frequency (RF) transmissions like radio broadcasts and converts the selected carrier frequency and its associated bandwidth into a fixed frequency that is suitable for further processing, usually because a lower frequency is used on the output. Broadcast FM /AM transmissions usually feed this intermediate frequency (IF) directly into a demodulator that convert the radio signal into audio-frequency signals that can be fed into an amplifier to drive a loudspeaker . More complex transmissions like PAL
PAL
/ NTSC
NTSC
(TV), DAB (digital radio), DVB-T
DVB-T
/ DVB-S / DVB-C
DVB-C
(digital TV) etc. use a wider frequency bandwidth, often with several subcarriers . These are transmitted inside the receiver as an intermediate frequency (IF)
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