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Parnassius
Parnassius
Parnassius
acco Parnassius
Parnassius
acdestis
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda,[1][3] which includes insects, arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans. The term Arthropoda as originally proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora. Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin, often mineralised with calcium carbonate. The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting. Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments
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Insect
See text.SynonymsEctognatha EntomidaInsects or Insecta (from Latin
Latin
insectum) are by far the largest group of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum. Definitions and circumscriptions vary; usually, insects comprise a class within the Phylum
Phylum
Arthropoda. As used here, the term is synonymous with Ectognatha. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae
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Parnassus (other)
Mount Parnassus
Parnassus
is a sacred mountain in central Greece, near Delphi. The name "Parnassus" in literature typically refers to its distinction as the home of poetry, literature and, by extension, learning. Parnassus
Parnassus
or Parnassos may also refer to:Contents1 Geography and derivates 2 Humanities 3 Biology 4 See alsoGeography and derivates[edit]GreeceParnassos (municipality), a former municipality in Phocis, Greece, named after Mount Parnassus Parnassos, the mythic son of the nymph Kleodora and the man Kleopompus, and namesake of the mountain and cityElsewhere Parnassus
Parnassus
(see), a Roman town, former Catholic diocese and present Latin titular see in Cappadocia (Asia Minor) Mount Sutro, a hill in San Francisco, California, U.S
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Parnassiini
See textThe Parnassiini are a tribe of swallowtail butterflies. The tribe is thought to consist of two genera:Hypermnestra ParnassiusReferences[edit]Nazari et al. (2007) Phylogeny, historical biogeography, and taxonomic ranking of Parnassiinae (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) based on morphology and seven genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 42(1):131–156. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.06.022PDFTaxon identifiersWd: Q933147 BugGuide: 483720 EoL: 2682731 Fauna Europaea: 440692 iNaturalist: 207791 ITIS: 694296This Papilionidae-related article is a stub
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Parnassia
About 50[1]–70[2]The genus Parnassia, also known as Grass of Parnassus or bog-stars, are plants in the family Celastraceae.[3][4] The plants occur in arctic and alpine habitats, as well as in dune systems and fens, swamps, wet meadows, open seepage areas, moist woods, and across the Northern Hemisphere. It is actually not a grass, but an herbaceous dicot. The stalk of the plant can reach up to 8 inches (200 mm), the leaves up to 4 inches (100 mm) and the petals can be up to 1.4 inches (36 mm) wide. The flower has five white petals with light green venation
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Lepidoptera
Aglossata Glossata Heterobathmiina Zeugloptera Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
(/ˌlɛpɪˈdɒptərə/ lep-i-DOP-tər-ə) is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans). About 180,000 species of the Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
are described, in 126 families[1] and 46 superfamilies,[2] 10% of the total described species of living organisms.[2][3] It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world.[4] The Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
show many variations of the basic body structure that have evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution
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Swallowtail Butterfly
There are 31 genera and about 600 species: Subfamily
Subfamily
BaroniinaeBaronia Subfamily
Subfamily
ParnassiinaeAllancastria Archon Bhutanitis Doritites Hypermnestra Luehdorfia Parnassius Sericinus Subfamily
Subfamily
PapilioninaeAtrophaneura Battus Byasa Cressida Euryades Eurytides Graphium Iphiclides Lamproptera Losaria Meandrusa Mimoides Ornithoptera Pachliopta Papilio Parides Pharmacophagus Protesilaus Protographium Teinopalpus Trogonoptera Troides Subfamily
Subfamily
†Praepapilioninae†PraepapilioPlay mediaSwallowtail butterflySwallowtail butterflies are large, colorful butterflies in the family Papilionidae, and include over 550 species. Though the majority are tropical, members of the family inhabit every continent except Antarctica
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Parnassius Labeyriei
Parnassius labeyriei is a high-altitude butterfly which is found in China. It is a member of the snow Apollo genus Parnassius of the swallowtail family, Papilionidae. The taxonomic status of this butterfly is uncertain. It was described as a separate species and this view was maintained by Chou (1994) and Weiss (1992). Later authors believe it to be conspecific with Parnassius maharaja. References[edit]Chou, I. (ed) 1994. Monographia Rhopalocerorum Sinensium (Monograph of Chinese Butterflies). Henan Scientific and Technological Publishing House, Zhengzhou.(in Chinese) Weiss, J.-C. 1992. The Parnassiinae of the World. Part 2. Sciences Nat, Venette; 87 pp.External links[edit]Parnassius of the World Text and photos.Taxon identifiersWd: Q7139275 GBIF: 1938249This Papilionidae-related article is a stub
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Parnassius Nandadevinensis
Parnassius nadadevinensisParnassius nandadevinensis is a high-altitude butterfly which is found only on Mt Nanda Devi, India. It is a member of the snow Apollo genus (Parnassius) of the swallowtail family (Papilionidae). It was described on the basis of a single worn specimen. The genitalia are said to be intermediate in structure between P. acdestis and P. stoliczkanus and could possibly represent an aberrant specimen of either.[2] References[edit]^ Weiss, J.-C. 1992. The Parnassiinae of the World. Part 2. Sciences Nat, Venette; 87 pp. ^ Hauser, CL (1993). "An annotated checklist of the species of the Parnassiinae (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)". Tijdschrift Voor Entomologie. 136: 137–146. Taxon identifiersWd: Q7139280 GBIF: 1938757This Papilionidae-related article is a stub
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Parnassius Jacobsoni
Parnassius jacobsoni is a high-altitude butterfly which is found only in Tajikistan and Afghanistan. It is a member of the snow Apollo genus (Parnassius) of the swallowtail family (Papilionidae). References[edit]Heinkele, P., 2000: Beitrag zur revision des Parnassius-delphius-staudingeri-komplexes mit beschreibung einer neuen subspezies von Parnassius staudingeri Bang-Haas 1882 aus Afghanistan. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Galathea, 16: 59-70 Weiss, J.C., 1999. The Parnassiinae of the world, Part 3. Hillside Books, Canterbury, U.K.External links[edit]Goran Waldeck Parnassius of the World ImagesTaxon identifiersWd: Q7139273 EoL: 10644308 NCBI: 1933058This Papilionidae-related article is a stub
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Parnassius Kiritshenkoi
Parnassius kiritshenkoi is a high-altitude butterfly which is found only in the eastern Pamir Mountains. It is a member of the snow Apollo genus Parnassius of the swallowtail family, Papilionidae. For many years, P. kiritshenkoi was regarded as a subspecies of Parnassius staudingeri. It is however sympatric with P. staudingeri mustagata Sarykolsky Mountains and with P. staudingeri illustris Zaalaisky Mountains. References[edit]Weiss, J.C., 1999. The Parnassiinae of the world, Part 3. Hillside Books, Canterbury, U.K.External links[edit]Rusinsects Text and photos. Parnassius of the World Text and photos. Lepidoptera pro ImageWikispecies has information related to Parnassius kiritshenkoiTaxon identifiersWd: Q3006593 EoL: 10644309This Papilionidae-related article is a stub
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Parnassius Baileyi
Parnassius baileyi, the Bailey's Apollo, is a high-altitude butterfly which is found in southwestern China (Sichuan, northern Yunnan and eastern Tibet). It is a member of the snow Apollo genus (Parnassius) of the swallowtail family (Papilionidae). The taxonomic status of this butterfly is uncertain. P. baileyi was originally described as a subspecies of P. acco, later as a subspecies of P. rothschildianus Bryk, 1931 and also P. przewalskii (Alpherakyi 1887), and now also treated as a separate species (Weiss 1992), (Chou, 1994). Molecular studies suggest it is the sister species of P. acco. The butterfly was named for Frederick Marshman Bailey who collected the first specimens. Subspecies[edit]Parnassius baileyi baileyi Parnassius baileyi bubo Bryk, 1938 Parnassius baileyi rothschildianus Bryk, 1931References[edit]Chou, I. (ed) 1994. Monographia Rhopalocerorum Sinensium (Monograph of Chinese Butterflies) [in Chinese]
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Parnassius Hide
Parnassius hide is a high-altitude butterfly which is found in China. It is a member of the snow Apollo genus (Parnassius) of the swallowtail (Papilionidae) family.Contents1 Distribution 2 Classification 3 References 4 External linksDistribution[edit] It is a rare and local species confined to a few areas in western China and Tibet. P. hide was not described until 1987 when it was discovered in the Kunlun Mountains of Qinghai, China. Classification[edit] This butterfly is closely related to P. patricius subspecies priamus. Five subspecies are described.P. h. meveli Weiss & Michel P. h. aksobhya Shinkai P. h. gamdensis Nose P. h. hengduanshanus Nose P. h. poshurarinus NoseReferences[edit]^ Koiwaya, 1987; Gekkan Mushi 201: 6Chou Io (Ed.) Monographia Rhopalocerum SinensiumExternal links[edit]Kailasius hide Koiwaya, 1987 - Images and details at Insecta.pro Images from A
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