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Parliamentary Group
A PARLIAMENTARY GROUP, PARLIAMENTARY PARTY, or PARLIAMENTARY CAUCUS is a group consisting of members of the same political party or electoral fusion of parties in a legislative assembly such as a parliament or a city council . Parliamentary groups correspond to "CAUCUSES " in the United States Congress
Congress
and the Canadian Parliament . A parliamentary group is sometimes called the parliamentary wing of a party, as distinct from its organisational wing. Generally, parliamentary groups have some independence from the wider party organisations. It is often thought improper for elected MPs to take instructions solely from non-elected party officials or from the small subset of the electorate represented by party members. In any case, the exigencies of government, the need to cooperate with other members of the legislature and the desire to retain the support of the electorate as a whole often preclude strict adherence to the wider party's wishes
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Politics Of The Netherlands
The POLITICS OF THE NETHERLANDS take place within the framework of a parliamentary representative democracy , a constitutional monarchy and a decentralised unitary state . The Netherlands
Netherlands
is described as a consociational state . Dutch politics and governance are characterised by a common striving for broad consensus on important issues, within both the political community and society as a whole
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The Estates
The ESTATES or the STATES (French : États, German : Landstände, Dutch : Staten) was the assembly of the representatives of the ESTATES OF THE REALM , the divisions of society in feudal times, called together for purposes of deliberation, legislation or taxation . A meeting of the estates that covered an entire kingdom was called an ESTATES GENERAL . In many states, the first estate comprised the clergymen , the second estate the nobility , and the third estate the commoners (bourgeoisie , artisans and peasants ). The actual representation of these three estates in the assembly could vary from country to country. Bourgeoisie, peasants and people with no estate from birth were separated in Sweden
Sweden
and Finland
Finland
as late as in 1905. In some countries, the parliament kept the same name when its feudal organization was replaced with a more modern kind of representation, like census or universal suffrage
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Politics Of Finland
POLITICS OF FINLAND takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic and of a multi-party system . The President
President
of Finland
Finland
is the head of state , leads the foreign policy, and is the Commander-in-chief of the Defense Forces . The Prime Minister of Finland
Finland
is the head of government ; executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the Parliament of Finland
Finland
, and the government has limited rights to amend or extend legislation. The president has the power of veto over parliamentary decisions although it can be overruled by the parliament. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Judiciary
Judiciary
consists of two systems, regular courts and administrative courts, headed by the Supreme Court and the Supreme Administrative Court, respectively
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City Council
A CITY COUNCIL, TOWN COUNCIL, TOWN BOARD, or BOARD OF ALDERMEN is the legislative body that governs a city , town , municipality , or local government area . CONTENTS * 1 Australia * 2 Ireland * 3 Malaysia
Malaysia
* 4 New Zealand
New Zealand
* 5 Taiwan * 6 United Kingdom * 6.1 England * 6.2 Wales * 6.3 Scotland * 6.4 Northern Ireland * 7 Canada and United States * 8 Bicameralism * 9 See also * 10 References AUSTRALIA Main article: Local government in Australia
Local government in Australia
This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Because of the differences in legislation between the states , the exact definition of a City
City
Council varies
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Politics Of Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland
is a democratic federal republic . The federal legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Federal Assembly , the National Council and the Council of States . The Federal Council holds the executive power and is composed by seven power-sharing Federal Councillors elected by the Federal Assembly. The judiciary branch is represented by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland
Switzerland
, whose judges are elected by the Federal Assembly. Switzerland
Switzerland
has a tradition of direct democracy . For any change in the constitution, a referendum is mandatory (mandatory referendum ); for any change in a law , a referendum can be requested (optional referendum ). In addition, the people may present a constitutional popular initiative to introduce amendments to the federal constitution
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Motion Of No Confidence
A MOTION OF NO CONFIDENCE (alternatively VOTE OF NO CONFIDENCE, NO-CONFIDENCE MOTION, or (UNSUCCESSFUL) CONFIDENCE MOTION) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental. As a parliamentary motion , it demonstrates to the head of state that the elected parliament no longer has confidence in (one or more members of) the appointed government . A censure motion is different from a no-confidence motion. Depending on the constitution of the body concerned, "No Confidence" may lead to compulsory resignation of the council of ministers or other position-holder(s), whereas "Censure" is meant to show disapproval and does not result in the resignation of ministers
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Congress
A CONGRESS is a formal meeting of the representatives of different nations , constituent states , independent organizations (such as trade unions ), or groups. The term was chosen for the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
to emphasize the status of each colony represented there as a self-governing unit. Subsequent to the use of congress by the U.S. legislature, the term has been adopted by many states within unions, and by unitary nation-states in the Americas
Americas
, to refer to their legislatures
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Politics Of Italy
POLITICS OF ITALY is conducted through a Parliamentary Republic with a multi-party system . Italy
Italy
has been a democratic republic since 2 June 1946 , when the monarchy was abolished by popular referendum and a constituent assembly was elected to draft a constitution, which was promulgated on 1 January 1948. The executive power is exercised collectively by the Council of Ministers , which is led by the Prime Minister , officially referred to as President of the Council ("Presidente del Consiglio"). Legislative power
Legislative power
is vested in the two houses of parliament primarily, and secondarily on the Council of Ministers, which can introduce bills and holds the majority in the parliament. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislative branches. It is headed by the High Council of the Judiciary. The president is the head of state , though his position is separate from all branches
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Electoral Fusion
ELECTORAL FUSION is an arrangement where two or more political parties on a ballot list the same candidate , pooling the votes for that candidate. Distinct from the process of electoral alliances in that the political parties remain separately listed on the ballot, the practice of electoral fusion in jurisdictions where it exists allows minor parties to influence election results and policy by offering to endorse or nominate a major party's candidate. Electoral fusion is also known as fusion voting, cross endorsement, multiple party nomination, multi-party nomination, plural nomination, and ballot freedom
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Politics Of Austria
The POLITICS OF AUSTRIA take place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic , with a Federal Chancellor as the head of government, and a Federal President as head of state. Governments, both local and federal, exercise executive power . Federal legislative power is vested both in the government and in the two chambers of parliament, the National Council and the Federal Council. Since 1949 the conservative Austrian People\'s Party (ÖVP) and the center-left Social Democratic Party of Austria
Austria
(SPÖ) have largely dominated the party-political landscape of Austria. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature, and exclusively federal in nature: there are no state courts. The ethnically and culturally heterogeneous nation state of Austria is one of the many remnant states of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
, a vast multinational empire that ceased to exist in 1918
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Politics Of Belgium
The POLITICS OF BELGIUM takes place in a framework of a federal , representative democratic , constitutional monarchy , whereby the King of the Belgians
Belgians
is the Head of State and the Prime Minister of Belgium is the head of government in a multi-party system . Executive power is exercised by the government. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Senate and the Chamber of Representatives . The federation is made up of (language-based) communities and (territorial) regions . Since around 1970, the significant national Belgian political parties have split into distinct representations for each communities' interests besides defense of their ideologies. These parties belong to three main political families, though close to the centre : the right-wing Liberals , the social conservative Christian Democrats , and Socialists forming the left-wing
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Politics Of Brazil
The POLITICS OF BRAZIL take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic , whereby the President is both head of state and head of government , and of a multi-party system . The political and administrative organization of Brazil
Brazil
comprises the federal government , the 26 states and a federal district , and the municipalities . The federal government exercises control over the central government and is divided into three independent branches: executive, legislative and judicial. Executive power is exercised by the President, advised by a cabinet . Legislative power is vested upon the National Congress , a two-chamber legislature comprising the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies
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Politics Of Australia
The POLITICS OF AUSTRALIA takes place within the framework of a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy . Australians elect parliamentarians to the federal Parliament of Australia
Australia
, a bicameral body which incorporates elements of the fused executive inherited from the Westminster system
Westminster system
, and a strong federalist senate , adopted from the United States Congress
United States Congress
. Australia
Australia
largely operates as a two-party system in which voting is compulsory
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Canadian Parliament
Initially assumed some jurisdiction from: * Parliament of the Province of Canada * General Assembly of Nova Scotia * New Brunswick Legislature
New Brunswick Legislature
Later added some jurisdiction from: * Hudson\'s Bay Company *
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Politics Of Germany
Germany
Germany
is a democratic, federal parliamentary republic , and federal legislative power is vested in the Bundestag
Bundestag
(the parliament of Germany) and the Bundesrat (the representative body of the Länder , Germany's regional states). There is a multi-party system that, since 1949, has been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and the Social Democratic Party of Germany
Germany
(SPD). The judiciary of Germany
Germany
is independent of the executive and the legislature. The political system is laid out in the 1949 constitution, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law), which remained in effect with minor amendments after German reunification
German reunification
in 1990
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