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Parliamentary Group
A parliamentary group, parliamentary party, or parliamentary caucus is a group consisting of members of the same political party or electoral fusion of parties in a legislative assembly such as a parliament or a city council. Parliamentary groups correspond to "caucuses" in the United States Congress
Congress
and the Canadian Parliament.[1] A parliamentary group is sometimes called the parliamentary wing of a party, as distinct from its organisational wing. Generally, parliamentary groups have some independence from the wider party organisations. It is often thought improper for elected MPs to take instructions solely from non-elected party officials or from the small subset of the electorate represented by party members. In any case, the exigencies of government, the need to cooperate with other members of the legislature and the desire to retain the support of the electorate as a whole often preclude strict adherence to the wider party's wishes
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Legislature
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators
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Politics Of The Netherlands
The politics of the Netherlands
Netherlands
take place within the framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, a constitutional monarchy and a decentralised unitary state.[1] The Netherlands
Netherlands
is described as a consociational state.
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Party Caucuses And Conferences In The United States Congress
Members of each major party in the United States Congress meet regularly in closed sessions known as party conferences (Republicans) or party caucuses (Democrats). Participants set legislative agendas, select committee members and chairs, and hold elections to choose various Floor leaders. This process takes place for both the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Republican Conference Chairman or Democratic Caucus Chairman is the third ranking position in each chamber's party leadership, after the Majority/Minority Leader and the Majority/Minority Whip, and before the Campaign Committee Chairman (Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee, National Republican Congressional Committee, National Republican Senatorial Committee, Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee)
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Politics Of Australia
The politics of Australia
Australia
takes place within the framework of a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Australians elect parliamentarians to the federal Parliament of Australia, a bicameral body which incorporates elements of the fused executive inherited from the Westminster system, and a strong federalist senate, adopted from the United States Congress
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Politics Of Austria
The politics of Austria
Austria
take place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, with a Federal Chancellor as the head of government, and a Federal President as head of state. Governments, both local and federal, exercise executive power. Federal legislative power is vested both in the government and in the two chambers of parliament, the National Council and the Federal Council. Since 1949 the conservative Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) and the center-left Social Democratic Party of Austria
Austria
(SPÖ) have largely dominated the party-political landscape of Austria. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature, and exclusively federal in nature: there are no state courts. The ethnically and culturally heterogeneous nation state of Austria
Austria
is one of the many remnant states of Austria-Hungary, a vast multinational empire that ceased to exist in 1918
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Politics Of Belgium
The Politics of Belgium
Belgium
take place in a framework of a federal, representative democratic, constitutional monarchy, whereby the King of the Belgians
Belgians
is the Head of State and the Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of Belgium is the head of government in a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Senate and the Chamber of Representatives. The federation is made up of (language-based) communities and (territorial) regions. Since around 1970, the significant national Belgian political parties have split into distinct representations for each communities' interests besides defense of their ideologies
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Politics Of Brazil
The politics of Brazil take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. The political and administrative organization of Brazil comprises the federal government, the 26 states and a federal district, and the municipalities. The federal government exercises control over the central government and is divided into three independent branches: executive, legislative and judicial. Executive power is exercised by the President, advised by a cabinet. Legislative power is vested upon the National Congress, a two-chamber legislature comprising the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies
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Politics Of Portugal
Politics
Politics
in Portugal
Portugal
takes place in a framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Portugal
Portugal
is the head of government. Portugal
Portugal
has a multi-party system. The President of Portugal
Portugal
is the executive head of state and has several significant political powers, which he exercises often. Executive power is exercised by the President and the Council of Ministers. Legislative power
Legislative power
is vested in both the government and the Assembly of the Republic. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Since 1975, the party system has been dominated by the social democratic Socialist Party and the liberal-conservative Social Democratic Party
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Politics Of Germany
Germany
Germany
is a democratic, federal parliamentary republic, and federal legislative power is vested in the Bundestag
Bundestag
(the parliament of Germany) and the Bundesrat (the representative body of the Länder, Germany's regional states). There is a multi-party system that, since 1949, has been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and the Social Democratic Party of Germany
Germany
(SPD). The judiciary of Germany
Germany
is independent of the executive and the legislature, while it is common for leading members of the executive to be member of the legislature, as well
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Politics Of Italy
Politics of Italy
Italy
is conducted through a parliamentary republic with a multi-party system. Italy
Italy
has been a democratic republic since 2 June 1946, when the monarchy was abolished by popular referendum and a constituent assembly was elected to draft a constitution, which was promulgated on 1 January 1948. The executive power is exercised collectively by the Council of Ministers, which is led by the Prime Minister, officially referred to as President of the Council (Presidente del Consiglio). Legislative power is vested in the two houses of the Italian Parliament
Italian Parliament
primarily, and secondarily on the Council of Ministers, which can introduce bills and holds the majority in both houses. The judiciary of Italy
Italy
is independent of the executive and the legislative branches
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Politics Of Finland
The politics of Finland
Finland
take place within the framework of a parliamentary representative democracy. Finland
Finland
is a republic whose head of state is President
President
Sauli Niinistö, who leads the nation's foreign policy and is the supreme commander of the Finnish Defence Forces.[1] Finland's head of government is the Prime Minister, who leads the nation's executive branch, called the Finnish Government.[2] Legislative power is vested in the Parliament of Finland
Finland
(Finnish: Suomen eduskunta, Swedish: Finlands riksdag),[3] and the Government has limited rights to amend or extend legislation
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Politics Of Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland
is a semi-direct democratic federal republic. The federal legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Federal Assembly, the National Council and the Council of States. The Federal Council holds the executive power and is composed of seven power-sharing Federal Councillors elected by the Federal Assembly. The judicial branch is headed by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland, whose judges are elected by the Federal Assembly. Switzerland
Switzerland
has a tradition of direct democracy. For any change in the constitution, a referendum is mandatory (mandatory referendum); for any change in a law, a referendum can be requested (optional referendum). In addition, the people may present a constitutional popular initiative to introduce amendments to the federal constitution
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Electoral Fusion
Electoral fusion is an arrangement where two or more political parties on a ballot list the same candidate, pooling the votes for that candidate. Distinct from the process of electoral alliances in that the political parties remain separately listed on the ballot, the practice of electoral fusion in jurisdictions where it exists allows minor parties to influence election results and policy by offering to endorse or nominate a major party's candidate. Electoral fusion is also known as fusion voting, cross endorsement, multiple party nomination, multi-party nomination, plural nomination, and ballot freedom.[1][2]Contents1 Brazil 2 Hong Kong 3 Italy 4 Netherlands 5 Philippines 6 United States6.1 Milwaukee 6.2 New York City 6.3 Oregon7 See also 8 Articles 9 References 10 External linksBrazil[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it
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Politics Of Romania
Romania's political framework is a semi-presidential, representative democratic republic where the prime minister is the head of government and the president is the head of state. Executive power is exercised by the president of the republic and the government. Romania
Romania
has a multi-party system, with legislative power vested in the government and the two chambers of parliament: the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Romania's 1991 constitution (amended in 2003) proclaims it a democratic and social republic, deriving its sovereignty from the people
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Party Discipline
Party discipline is the ability of a parliamentary group of a political party to get its members to support the policies of their party leadership. In liberal democracies, it usually refers to the control that party leaders have over their caucus members in the legislature. Party discipline is important for all systems of government that allow parties to hold political power because it determines the degree to which the governmental infrastructure will be affected by legitimate political processes. The term has a somewhat different meaning in Marxist–Leninist political systems such as the People's Republic of China
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