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Paregreg War
Paregreg war was the Majapahit
Majapahit
civil war that took place in 1404-1406. The war was fought as the contest of succession between Western court led by Wikramawardhana, against Eastern court led by Bhre Wirabhumi. This war of rivalry and succession had caused the calamity, crisis, court's preoccupation, the drain of financial resources, and exhaustion, that is thought to be one of the causes of Majapahit decline in the following years.[1]Contents1 The division of West and East courts 2 Bhre Wirabhumi and Wikramawardhana rivalry 3 Paregreg war 4 The aftermath 5 Paregreg war in Javanese literature 6 See also 7 References 8 BibliographyThe division of West and East courts[edit] The Majapahit
Majapahit
kingdom was established in 1293 by Raden Wijaya
Raden Wijaya
with the help of cunning and able Arya Wiraraja, the Regent of Madura
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Majapahit
The Majapahit
Majapahit
Empire
Empire
(Javanese: ꦏꦫꦠꦺꦴꦤ꧀ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ Karaton Majapahit, Indonesian: Kerajaan Majapahit) was a thalassocracy in Southeast Asia, based on the island of Java
Java
(part of modern-day Indonesia), that existed from 1293 to circa 1500. Majapahit
Majapahit
reached its peak of glory during the era of Hayam Wuruk, whose reign from 1350 to 1389 was marked by conquest which extended through Southeast Asia
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Duke
A duke (male) (British English: /djuːk/[1] or American English: /duːk/[2]) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of the nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch. The title comes from French duc, itself from the Latin dux, 'leader', a term used in republican Rome to refer to a military commander without an official rank (particularly one of Germanic or Celtic origin), and later coming to mean the leading military commander of a province. The title dux survived in the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
where it was used in several contexts signifying a rank equivalent to a captain or general. Later on, in the 11th century, the title Megas Doux
Megas Doux
was introduced for the post of commander-in-chief of the entire navy. During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the title (as Herzog) signified first among the Germanic monarchies
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OCLC
OCLC, currently incorporated as OCLC
OCLC
Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated,[3] is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs".[4] It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC
OCLC
and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Battle Of Bubat
A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants. A war sometimes consists of many battles. Battles generally are well defined in duration, area, and force commitment.[1] A battle with only limited engagement between the forces and without decisive results is sometimes called a skirmish. Wars and military campaigns are guided by strategy, whereas battles take place on a level of planning and execution known as operational mobility.[2] German strategist Carl von Clausewitz stated that "the employment of battles ..
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Damarwulan
Damarwulan is a Javanese legendary hero who appears in a cycle of stories used in the performance of wayang klitik, as well as Langendriya (female dance-opera) and ketoprak (popular theater). These stories tell of the struggles between the Majapahit and Blambangan kingdoms, in which Damarwulan gains honor. The stories are especially popular in East Java.Contents1 Origin 2 Characters 3 Synopsis 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further readingOrigin[edit] The Damarwulan legend is associated with the Majapahit court at the time of the queen Suhita, at which time there was a war with Blambangan. However, the names of the characters Damar Wulan ("radiance of the moon") and Menak Jingga ("red knight") suggest that it may incorporate elements of an older sun-moon myth. It is uncertain when the story was first recorded and by whom.[1] The richly illustrated Serat Damar Wulan manuscript at the British Library (MSS.Jav.89) was donated to the Library in 1815
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Queen Regnant
A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, in contrast to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child's stead. An empress regnant is a female monarch who reigns in her own right over an empire. A queen regnant possesses and exercises sovereign powers, whereas a queen consort shares her husband's rank and titles, but does not share the sovereignty of her husband. The husband of a queen regnant traditionally does not share his wife's rank, title or sovereignty. However, the concept of a king consort is not unheard of in both contemporary and classical periods. A queen dowager is the widow of a king
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Suhita
Suhita
Suhita
or Soheeta was a Javanese queen regnant and the sixth monarch of the Majapahit empire, ruling from 1429 to 1447. She was the daughter of Wikramawardhana,[1]:242 her predecessor, by a concubine who was the daughter of Wirabhumi, who was killed in the Paregreg civil war with Wikramawardhana. She was succeeded by her brother, Kertawijaya. The Damarwulan
Damarwulan
legend is associated with her reign, as it involves a maiden queen (Prabu Kenya in the story), and during Suhita's reign there was a war with Blambangan as in the legend.[2] A notable monumental sculpture found in Tulungagung
Tulungagung
Regency, East Java has been identified by some authors as of Suhita. She is dressed in royal attire, including ear pendants, necklaces, bracelets, anklets, and pendants hung from several girdles
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Yongle Emperor
The Yongle Emperor
Yongle Emperor
(Yung-lo in Wade–Giles; 2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424), personal name Zhu Di (WG: Chu Ti), was the third emperor of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424. Zhu Di was the fourth son of the Hongwu Emperor, the founder of the Ming dynasty. He was originally enfeoffed as the Prince of Yan (燕王) in May 1370,[1] with the capital of his princedom at Beiping (modern Beijing). Amid the continuing struggle against the Mongols
Mongols
of the Northern Yuan dynasty, Zhu Di consolidated his own power and eliminated rivals such as the general Lan Yu
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Zheng He
Zheng He
Zheng He
(Chinese: 鄭和; 1371–1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty. He was originally born as Ma He in a Muslim family, later adopted the conferred surname Zheng from Emperor Yongle.[2] Zheng commanded expeditionary voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, Western Asia, and East Africa from 1405 to 1433. His larger ships stretched 120 meters or more in length. These carried hundreds of sailors on four tiers of decks.[3] As a favorite of the Yongle Emperor, whose usurpation he assisted, Zheng rose to the top of the imperial hierarchy and served as commander of the southern capital Nanjing
Nanjing
(the capital was later moved to Beijing
Beijing
by the Yongle Emperor)
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Bruneian Empire
The Bruneian Empire
Empire
or Empire
Empire
of Brunei
Brunei
/bruːˈnaɪ/, also known as Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
or Negara Brunei, was a Malay sultanate, centred in Brunei
Brunei
on the northern coast of Borneo
Borneo
island in Southeast Asia. The kingdom was founded in the early 7th century, started as a small seafaring trading kingdom ruled by a native pagan or Hindu
Hindu
king known by the Chinese as Po-Li or Po-Ni (渤泥)
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Malacca
Malacca
Malacca
(Malay: Melaka; Tamil: மலாக்கா, simplified Chinese: 马六甲; traditional Chinese: 馬六甲), dubbed "The Historic State",[citation needed] is a state in Malaysia
Malaysia
located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca. The state is bordered by Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
to the north and west and Johor
Johor
to the south. The exclave of Cape Rachado also borders Negeri Sembilan to the north. Its capital is Malacca
Malacca
City, which is 148 kilometres (92 miles) south east of Malaysia's capital city Kuala Lumpur, 235 kilometres (146 miles) north west of Johor's largest city Johor
Johor
Bahru, and 95 km (59 miles) north west of Johor's second largest city, Batu Pahat
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Melayu Kingdom
The Melayu Kingdom
Melayu Kingdom
(also known as Malayu, Dharmasraya Kingdom or the Jambi
Jambi
Kingdom; Chinese: 末羅瑜國; pinyin: Mòluóyú Guó, reconstructed Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
pronunciation mat-la-yu kwok)[1][2][3] was a classical Southeast Asian kingdom. The primary sources for much of the information on the kingdom are the New History of the Tang, and the memoirs of the Chinese Buddhist monk Yijing who visited in 671, and states was "absorbed" by Srivijaya
Srivijaya
by 692, but had "broken away" by the end of the eleventh century according to Chao Jukua.[4]:79–80,83,142,179,184 The exact location of the kingdom is the subject of studies among historians
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Palembang
Palembang
Palembang
(Indonesian pronunciation: [palɛmˈbaŋ]) is the second-largest city on Sumatra
Sumatra
after Medan
Medan
and the capital city of South Sumatra
South Sumatra
province of Indonesia. It is one of the oldest cities in the Malay Archipelago
Malay Archipelago
and Southeast Asia. Palembang
Palembang
is located on the Musi River banks on the east coast of southern Sumatra, with a land area of 369.22 square kilometres (142.56 square miles) and a population of 1,708,413 people (2014).[4] Palembang
Palembang
is the ninth most populous city in Indonesia
Indonesia
after Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, Bekasi, Medan, Tangerang, Depok
Depok
and Semarang, and the nineteenth most populous city in Southeast Asia
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