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Pararaton
The Pararaton, also known as the Book of Kings, is a Javanese chronicle[1]:187 in the Kawi language. The comparatively short text of 32 folio-size pages (1126 lines) contains the history of the kings of Singhasari
Singhasari
and Majapahit
Majapahit
in eastern Java. Pararaton opens with a formal incarnation of the founder of Singhasari kingdom (1222–1292), Ken Arok (or Ken Angrok).[2] Almost half of the manuscript is the story of Ken Arok's career before his accession to the throne in 1222. This part is clearly mythical in character. There then follow a number of shorter narrative fragments in chronological order. Many of the events recorded here are dated. Towards the end the pieces of history become shorter and shorter and are mixed with genealogical information concerning the members of the royal family of Majapahit. The edition of the text published by J.L.A
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Kawi Language
Kawi (from Sanskrit: कवि "kavi" lit. "poet") is a literary and prose language on the islands of Java, Bali, and Lombok. Kawi is a standardised form of Old Javanese, a language with a sizable vocabulary of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanwords. Kawi is also the direct ancestor language of modern Javanese. The name "kawi" is derived from the root ku, which in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
means “poet”, and, in derived forms, a “wise, educated man”. The syllabic meter of Kawi poetry is sekar kawi, which means “flowers of the language”, sekar itself deriving from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
"sekhara" (“garland”).[citation needed] All Javanese languages are hierarchical and stratified, with strict social conventions for appropriate language subsets to be used for one's superiors or social and cultural functions
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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Hikayat Banjar
The Hikayat Banjar is the chronicle of Banjarmasin, Indonesia. This text, also called the History of Lambung Mangkurat, contains the history of the kings of Banjar and of Kota Waringin in southeast and south Borneo
Borneo
respectively. The final part of the text dates from 1663 or slightly later; the first part is older. The text is 4787 lines long (120 pages quarto). A careful text edition alongside a detailed description of the literary and cultural-historical context was published by the Dutch philologist Hans Ras
Hans Ras
in 1968.[1]Contents1 Structure 2 Different versions 3 References 4 External linksStructure[edit] Structurally the Hikayat Banjar can be divided in nine sections. The first story details the origin of the Hindu Kingdom in South-east Borneo
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JSTOR
JSTOR
JSTOR
(/ˈdʒeɪstɔːr/ JAY-stor;[3] short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals, it now also includes books and primary sources, and current issues of journals.[4] It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals.[5] As of 2013, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR;[5] most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone.[6] JSTOR's revenue was $69 million in 2014.[7]Contents1 History 2 Content 3 Access3.1 Aaron Swartz
Aaron Swartz
incident 3.2 Limitations 3.3 Increasing public access4 Use 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] William G
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Georges Coedès
George Cœdès (French: [ʒɔʁʒ sedɛs]; 10 August 1886 – 2 October 1969) was a 20th-century French scholar of southeast Asian archaeology and history.Contents1 Biography 2 Decorations 3 References 4 Works 5 Further reading 6 See alsoBiography[edit] Cœdès was born in Paris
Paris
to a family of supposed Hungarian-Jewish émigrés.[1] In fact, the family was known as having settled in the region of Strasbourg (France) before 1740. His ancestors worked for the royal Treasury.[2] His grandfather, Louis Eugène Cœdès was a painter, pupil of Léon Coignet. His father Hyppolite worked as a banker. Cœdès became director of the National Library of Thailand in 1918, and in 1929 became director of L'École française d'Extrême-Orient, where he remained until 1946. Thereafter he lived in Paris
Paris
until he died in 1969. In 1935 he married Neang Yao
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Sunda Strait
The Sunda Strait (Indonesian: Selat Sunda) is the strait between the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra. It connects the Java Sea to the Indian Ocean. The name comes from the Indonesian term Pasundan, meaning "West Java". It also comes from the name of the Sundanese people, the native people of West Java, with the Javanese people being found mostly in Central and East Java.[1]Contents1 Geography 2 The Battle of Sunda Strait 3 Planned bridge 4 Islands in the strait4.1 Bays5 See also 6 ReferencesGeography[edit] The strait stretches in a roughly north-east/south-west orientation, with a minimum width of 24 km (15 mi) at its north-eastern end between Cape Tua on Sumatra and Cape Pujat on Java. It is very deep at its western end but as it narrows to the east it becomes much shallower, with a depth of only 20 m (65 feet) in parts of the eastern end
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Historiography
Historiography
Historiography
is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, techniques, and theoretical approaches. Scholars discuss historiography by topic – such as the "historiography of the United Kingdom", the "historiography of Canada", "historiography of the British Empire", the "historiography of early Islam", the "historiography of China" – and different approaches and genres, such as political history and social history. Beginning in the nineteenth century, with the ascent of academic history, there developed a body of historiographic literature
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Canggal Inscription
The Canggal inscription
Canggal inscription
is a Javanese inscription dated to 732, discovered in the Gunung Wukir
Gunung Wukir
temple complex in Kadiluwih village, Salam, Magelang Regency, Central Java, Indonesia. The inscription is written in the Pallava alphabet
Pallava alphabet
in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language. The inscription documents an edict of Sanjaya, in which he declared himself the universal ruler of Medang.Contents1 Content 2 See also 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksContent[edit] The inscription describes the erection of a lingam (the symbol of Shiva) on the country of Kunjarakunja, by Sanjaya's order
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Cosmos
The cosmos (UK: /ˈkɒzmɒs/, US: /-moʊs/) is the universe regarded as a complex and orderly system; the opposite of chaos.[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Cosmology2.1 Philosophical cosmology 2.2 Physical cosmology 2.3 Religious cosmology3 See also 4 References 5 External linksEtymology[edit] The philosopher Pythagoras
Pythagoras
first used the term cosmos (Ancient Greek: κόσμος) for the order of the universe.[2][3] The term became part of modern language in the 19th century when geographer–polymath
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Cornelis Christiaan Berg
Cornelis Christiaan Berg (1934–2012) was a Dutch botanist. Biography[edit] Berg was born on February 7, 1934 in Bandung, Indonesia. He got his education in the Netherlands, where he went to the school of horticulture at Breda. From 1959 to 1966 he worked at some colleges and from 1960 to 1986 held several positions at the University of Utrecht. Later on he graduated from that university in 1962 and 1964 respectively with a Ph.D. in 1973. A year before he published his first work, a thesis called Studies in Moraceae
Moraceae
which was printed in the Flora Neotropica magazine. On November 11, 1985 he became a director of the Norwegian Arboretum and the same day became professor of botany at the University of Bergen. On July 31, 2005 he left it and on September 1, 2005 he became professor emeritus at Bergen Museum. From December 18, 2001 he also worked at the University of Leiden, where he stayed till his death in 2012
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Tumapel
Tumapel was the capital city of Singhasari (1222 - 1292) near the modern city of Malang.[1] Prior to Singhasari, it was under Kediri Kingdom. References[edit]^ Turner, Peter (1997). Java (1st edition). Melbourne: Lonely Planet. p. 13. ISBN 0-86442-314-4. This East Java location article is a stub
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