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Parallel Study
A parallel study is a type of clinical study where two groups of treatments, A and B, are given so that one group receives only A while another group receives only B. Other names for this type of study include "between patient" and "non-crossover". This is unlike a crossover study where at first one group receives treatment A and later followed by treatment B while the other group receives treatment B followed by treatment A. There are, however, certain characteristics that allow for differentiation between these two types of trials. For example, a parallel study would be more appropriate if any concerns about carryover effects were present
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Carryover Effect
Repeated measures design uses the same subjects with every branch of research, including the control.[1] For instance, repeated measurements are collected in a longitudinal study in which change over time is assessed. Other (non-repeated measures) studies compare the same measure under two or more different conditions. For instance, to test the effects of caffeine on cognitive function, a subject's math ability might be tested once after they consume caffeine and another time when they consume a placebo.Contents1 Crossover studies 2 Uses 3 Order effects 4 Counterbalancing 5 Limitations 6 Repeated measures ANOVA6.1 Partitioning of error 6.2 Assumptions 6.3 F test 6.4 Effect size 6.5 Cautions7 See also 8 Notes 9 References9.1 Design and analysis of experiments 9.2 Exploration of longitudinal data10 External linksCrossover studies[edit] Main article: Crossover study A popular repeated-measures is the crossover study
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Randomization
Randomization is the process of making something random; in various contexts this involves, for example:generating a random permutation of a sequence (such as when shuffling cards); selecting a random sample of a population (important in statistical sampling); allocating experimental units via random assignment to a treatment or control condition; generating random numbers (see Random
Random
number generation); or transforming a data stream (such as when using a scrambler in telecommunications). Randomization is not haphazard. Instead, a random process is a sequence of random variables describing a process whose outcomes do not follow a deterministic pattern, but follow an evolution described by probability distributions. For example, a random sample of individuals from a population refers to a sample where every individual has a known probability of being sampled
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Placebo
A placebo (/pləˈsiːboʊ/ plə-SEE-boh; Latin
Latin
placēbō, "I shall please"[1] from placeō, "I please")[2][3] is a substance or treatment with no active therapeutic effect.[4] Common placebos include inert tablets (like sugar pills), vehicle infusions, sham surgery,[5] and other procedures.[6] In drug testing and medical research, a placebo can be made to resemble an active medication or therapy so that it functions as a control; this is to prevent the recipient(s) and/or others from knowing (with their consent) whether a treatment is active or inactive, as expectations about efficacy can influence res
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
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Crossover Study
A crossover study, also referred to as a crossover trial, is a longitudinal study in which subjects receive a sequence of different treatments (or exposures). While crossover studies can be observational studies, many important crossover studies are controlled experiments, which are discussed in this article. Crossover designs are common for experiments in many scientific disciplines, for example psychology, pharmaceutical science, and medicine. Randomized, controlled crossover experiments are especially important in health care. In a randomized clinical trial, the subjects are randomly assigned to different arms of the study which receive different treatments. When the randomized clinical trial is a repeated measures design, the same measures are collected multiple times for each subject
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Parallel Study
A parallel study is a type of clinical study where two groups of treatments, A and B, are given so that one group receives only A while another group receives only B. Other names for this type of study include "between patient" and "non-crossover". This is unlike a crossover study where at first one group receives treatment A and later followed by treatment B while the other group receives treatment B followed by treatment A. There are, however, certain characteristics that allow for differentiation between these two types of trials. For example, a parallel study would be more appropriate if any concerns about carryover effects were present
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