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Paraiyar
Paraiyar[1] or Parayar[2] (formerly anglicised as Pariah and Paree[3]) is a caste group found in Sri Lanka[4] and the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. They are also known as Adi Dravida ("Ancient Dravidians"), which was a title encouraged by the British Raj
British Raj
as a substitute for Paraiyar because the British believed that their colonising of the country had ended slavery in India.[5] The 2001 Census of India
2001 Census of India
reported that in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
the Adi Dravida population was 5,402,755 and the Paraiyar population was 1,860,519, giving a total of 7,263,274
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Tamil Nadu
^# Jana Gana Mana
Jana Gana Mana
is the national anthem, while "Invocation to Tamil Mother" is the state song/anthem. ^† Established in 1773; Madras State was formed in 1950 and renamed as Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
on 14 January 1969[9] ^^ Tamil is the official language of the state. English is declared as an additional official language for communication purposes.[8]SymbolsEmblem Srivilliputhur
Srivilliputhur
Andal templeLanguageTamilSong"Invocation to Goddess Tamil"DanceBharathanattiyamAnimalNilgiri tahrBirdEmerald doveFlowerGloriosa lilyTreePalm treeSportKabaddi Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
(Tamil pronunciation: [t̪amiɻ n̪aːᶑu] ( listen) literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai
Chennai
(formerly known as Madras)
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Francis Whyte Ellis
Francis Whyte Ellis (1777–1819)[1] was a British civil servant in the Madras Presidency and a scholar of Tamil and Sanskrit.Contents1 Biography 2 Dravidian language hypothesis2.1 History 2.2 The Dravidian Proof3 Other literary contributions3.1 St. George College and its press 3.2 Works of Ellis4 Legacy 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksBiography[edit] Ellis became a writer in the East India Company's service at Madras in 1796. He was promoted to the offices of assistant-under secretary, deputy-secretary, and secretary to the board of revenue in 1798, 1801, and 1802 respectively. In 1806 he was appointed judge of the zillah of Machilipatnam, in 1809 collector of land customs in the Madras presidency, and in 1810 collector of Madras
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Vaishnavism
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri
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Alvars
The alvars, also spelt as alwars or azhwars (āḻvārkaḷ [aːɻʋaːr], Tamil : ஆழ்வார்கள் ‘those immersed in god’) were Tamil poet-saints of South India
South India
who espoused bhakti (devotion) to the Hindu
Hindu
Supreme god Vishnu
Vishnu
or his avatar Krishna
Krishna
in their songs of longing, ecstasy and service.[1] They are venerated especially in Vaishnavism, which regards Vishnu
Vishnu
or Krishna as the Supreme Being. Many modern academics place the Alvars
Alvars
date between 5th century to 10th century CE, however traditionally the Alvars
Alvars
are considered to have lived between 4200 BCE - 2700 BCE
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Periya Puranam
Shiva
Shiva
- ShaktiSadasiva Rudra Bhairava Parvati Durga KaliGanesha Murugan OthersScriptures and textsAgamas and TantrasVedas SvetasvataraTirumurai Shivasutras VachanasPhilosophyThree ComponentsPati Pashu PasamThree bondagesAnava Karma Maya 36 Tattvas YogaPracticesVibhuti Rudraksha Panchakshara Bilva Maha Shivaratri Yamas-Niyamas Guru-Linga-JangamSchoolsAdi MargamPashupata Kalamukha Kapalika <
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Shiva
Shiva
Shiva
(/ˈʃiːvə, ˈʃɪ-/; Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. He is the Supreme Being within Shaivism, one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism.[10][11] Shiva
Shiva
is the "destroyer of evil and the transformer" within the Trimurti, the Hindu
Hindu
trinity that includes Brahma
Brahma
and Vishnu.[1][12] In Shaivism
Shaivism
tradition, Shiva
Shiva
is the Supreme being who creates, protects and transforms the universe.[13][14][15] In the goddess tradition of Hinduism
Hinduism
called Shaktism, the goddess is described as supreme, yet Shiva
Shiva
is revered along with Vishnu
Vishnu
and Brahma
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Chidambaram
Chidambaram
Chidambaram
is a town and municipality in Cuddalore district
Cuddalore district
in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the headquarters of the Chidambaram taluk. The town is believed to be of significant antiquity and has been ruled, at different times, by the Pallavas until 9th century, Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas, Later Pandyas, Vijayanagar Empire, Marathas and the British. The town is known for the Thillai Nataraja Temple, and the annual chariot festival held in the months of December–January (In the Tamil month of Marghazhi known as "Margazhi Urchavam") and June to July (In the Tamil month of Aani known as "Aani Thirumanjanam") Chidambaram
Chidambaram
covers an area of 4.8 km2 (1.9 sq mi) and had a population of 62,153 as of 2011. It is administered by a first-grade municipality. Teritiary sector involving tourism is the major occupation
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Jainism
Jainism
Jainism
(/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/),[1] traditionally known as Jain
Jain
Dharma,[2] is an ancient Indian religion.[3] Followers of Jainism
Jainism
are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life.[4] Jains
Jains
trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being Rishabhanatha, who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahāvīra
Mahāvīra
around 500 BCE
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Francis Buchanan-Hamilton
Dr Francis Buchanan FRS FRSE
FRSE
FLS FAS FSA DL (15 February 1762 – 15 June 1829), later known as Francis Hamilton but often referred to as Francis Buchanan-Hamilton
Francis Buchanan-Hamilton
was a Scottish physician who made significant contributions as a geographer, zoologist, and botanist while living in India. The standard botanical author abbreviation Buch.-Ham
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Brahmin
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-Dussehra


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Wesleyanism
Wesleyanism, or Wesleyan theology, is a movement of Protestant Christians
Christians
who seek to follow the "methods" or theology of the eighteenth-century evangelical reformers John Wesley
John Wesley
and his brother Charles Wesley. More broadly, it refers to the theological system inferred from the various sermons, theological treatises, letters, journals, diaries, hymns, and other spiritual writings of the Wesleys and their contemporary coadjutors such as John William Fletcher. Wesleyanism, manifest today in Methodist and Holiness churches, is named for its founders, the Wesleys. In 1736, these two brothers traveled to the Georgia colony in America as missionaries for the Church of England; they left rather disheartened at what they saw. Both of them subsequently had "religious experiences," especially John in 1738, being greatly influenced by the Moravian Christians
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Shaivism
Shiva
Shiva
- ShaktiSadasiva Rudra Bhairava Parvati Durga KaliGanesha Murugan OthersScriptures and textsAgamas and TantrasVedas SvetasvataraTirumurai Shivasutras VachanasPhilosophyThree ComponentsPati Pashu PasamThree bondagesAnava Karma Maya 36 Tattvas YogaPracticesVibhuti Rudraksha Panchakshara Bilva Maha Shivaratri Yamas-Niyamas Guru-Linga-JangamSchoolsAdi MargamPashupata Kalamukha Kapalika
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Serf
Serfdom
Serfdom
is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism. It was a condition of bondage, which developed primarily during the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
in Europe and lasted in some countries until the mid-19th century. Serfs who occupied a plot of land were required to work for the lord of the manor who owned that land. In return they were entitled to protection, justice, and the right to cultivate certain fields within the manor to maintain their own subsistence. Serfs were often required not only to work on the lord's fields, but also in his mines and forests and to labor to maintain roads
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Villeinage
A villein, otherwise known as cottar, torpare, crofter, is a serf tied to the land in the feudal system. Villeins had more rights and status than those in slavery, but were under a number of legal restrictions which differentiated them from the freeman.Contents1 Etymology 2 Villeinage 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksEtymology[edit] Villein, or villain, was a term used in the feudal era to denote a peasant (tenant farmer) who was legally tied to a lord of the manor – a villein in gross – or in the case of a villein regardant to a manor.[1] Villeins occupied the social space between a free peasant (or "freeman") and a slave. The majority of medieval European peasants were villeins. An alternative term is serf, from the Latin
Latin
servus, meaning "slave"
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Slavery
Slavery
Slavery
is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.[1] A slave is unable to withdraw unilaterally from such an arrangement and works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the term chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalised, de jure slavery
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