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Paragliding
Paragliding
Paragliding
is the recreational and competitive adventure sport of flying paragliders: lightweight, free-flying, foot-launched glider aircraft with no rigid primary structure.[1] The pilot sits in a harness suspended below a fabric wing. Wing shape is maintained by the suspension lines, the pressure of air entering vents in the front of the wing, and the aerodynamic forces of the air flowing over the outside. Despite not using an engine, paraglider flights can last many hours and cover many hundreds of kilometers, though flights of one to two hours and covering some tens of kilometers are more the norm
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G-force
The g-force (with g from gravitational) is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight. Despite the name, it is incorrect to consider g-force a fundamental force, as "g-force" (lower-case character) is a type of acceleration that can be measured with an accelerometer. Since g-force accelerations indirectly produce weight, any g-force can be described as a "weight per unit mass" (see the synonym specific weight). When the g-force acceleration is produced by the surface of one object being pushed by the surface of another object, the reaction force to this push produces an equal and opposite weight for every unit of an object's mass. The types of forces involved are transmitted through objects by interior mechanical stresses
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Flight Level
In aviation and aviation meteorology, a flight level (FL) is defined as a vertical altitude at standard pressure, nominally expressed in hundreds of feet. The pressure is computed assuming an International standard sea-level pressure datum of 1013.25 hPa (29.92 inHg), and therefore is not necessarily the same as the aircraft's actual altitude either above mean sea level or above ground level.Contents1 Background 2 Definition 3 Transition altitude 4 Quadrantal rule 5 Semicircular/hemispheric rule 6 Reduced vertical separation minima 7 Metric flight levels7.1 Mongolia, North Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan 7.2 People's Republic of China8 Flight levels in Russian Federation 9 See also 10 ReferencesBackground[edit] Flight levels are used to ensure safe vertical separation between aircraft, despite natural local variations in atmospheric air pressure
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Cessna 152
The Cessna
Cessna
152 is an American two-seat, fixed tricycle gear, general aviation airplane, used primarily for flight training and personal use
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Stall (flight)
In fluid dynamics, a stall is a reduction in the lift coefficient generated by a foil as angle of attack increases.[1] This occurs when the critical angle of attack of the foil is exceeded. The critical angle of attack is typically about 15 degrees, but it may vary significantly depending on the fluid, foil, and Reynolds number. Stalls in fixed-wing flight are often experienced as a sudden reduction in lift as the pilot increases the wing's angle of attack and exceeds its critical angle of attack (which may be due to slowing down below stall speed in level flight). A stall does not mean that the engine(s) have stopped working, or that the aircraft has stopped moving — the effect is the same even in an unpowered glider aircraft
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Lumbar Support
In tetrapod anatomy, lumbar is an adjective that means of or pertaining to the abdominal segment of the torso, between the diaphragm and the sacrum. The lumbar region is sometimes referred to as the lower spine, or as an area of the back in its proximity. In human anatomy the five lumbar vertebrae (vertebrae in the lumbar region of the back) are the largest and strongest in the movable part of the spinal column, and can be distinguished by the absence of a foramen in the transverse process, and by the absence of facets on the sides of the body. In most mammals, the lumbar region of the spine curves outward. The actual spinal cord (Angelamedulla spinalis) terminates between vertebrae one and two of this series, called L1 and L2. The nervous tissue that extends below this point are individual strands that collectively form the cauda equina
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Two-way Radio
A two-way radio is a radio that can do both transmit and receive a signal (a transceiver), unlike a broadcast receiver which only receives content. A two-way radio (transceiver) allows the operator to have a conversation with other similar radios operating on the same radio frequency (channel). Two-way radios are available in mobile, stationary base and hand-held portable configurations. Hand-held radios are often called walkie-talkies, handie-talkies or hand-helds. Two-way radio
Two-way radio
systems usually operate in a half-duplex mode; that is, the operator can talk, or he can listen, but not at the same time. A push-to-talk or Press To Transmit button activates the transmitter; when it is released the receiver is active
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GPS Navigation Device
A GPS navigation device, GPS receiver, or simply GPS is a device that is capable of receiving information from GPS satellites
GPS satellites
and then to calculate the device's geographical position. Using suitable software, the device may display the position on a map, and it may offer directions. The Global Positioning System
Global Positioning System
(GPS) uses a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) made up of a network of a minimum of 24, but currently 30, satellites placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defense.[1] The GPS was originally developed for use by the United States military, but in the 1980s, the United States
United States
government allowed the system to be used for civilian purposes
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Acceleration
In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time. An object's acceleration is the net result of any and all forces acting on the object, as described by Newton's Second
Second
Law.[1] The SI unit
SI unit
for acceleration is metre per second squared (m s−2). Accelerations are vector quantities (they have magnitude and direction) and add according to the parallelogram law.[2][3] As a vector, the calculated net force is equal to the product of the object's mass (a scalar quantity) and its acceleration. For example, when a car starts from a standstill (zero relative velocity) and travels in a straight line at increasing speeds, it is accelerating in the direction of travel. If the car turns, an acceleration occurs toward the new direction
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Altitude
Altitude
Altitude
or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more). As a general definition, altitude is a distance measurement, usually in the vertical or "up" direction, between a reference datum and a point or object. The reference datum also often varies according to the context
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Sea Level
Mean
Mean
sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic reference point – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels. A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location.[1] Sea
Sea
levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales
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GPS
The Global Positioning System
System
(GPS), originally Navstar GPS,[1] is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States
United States
Air Force.[2] It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver
GPS receiver
anywhere on or near the Earth
Earth
where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.[3] Obstacles such as mountains and buildings block the relatively weak GPS
GPS
signals. The GPS
GPS
does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS
GPS
positioning information
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Dyneema
Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene
Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene
(UHMWPE, UHMW) is a subset of the thermoplastic polyethylene. Also known as high-modulus polyethylene, (HMPE), it has extremely long chains, with a molecular mass usually between 3.5 and 7.5 million amu.[1] The longer chain serves to transfer load more effectively to the polymer backbone by strengthening intermolecular interactions
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Waypoint
A waypoint is an intermediate point or place on a route or line of travel, a stopping point or point at which course is changed,[1][2] first use of the term tracing to 1880.[2] In modern terms, it most often refers to coordinates which specify one's position on the globe at the end of each "leg" (stage) of an air flight or sea passage, the generation and checking of which are generally done computationally (with a computer or other programmed device).[1] Hence, the term connotes a reference point in physical space, most often associated with navigation, especially in the sea or air—e.g., in the case of sea navigation, a longitudinal and latitudinal coordinate or a GPS point in open water, a location near a known mapped shoal or other entity in a body of water, a point a fixed distance off of a geographical entity such as a lighthouse or harbour entrance, etc.[citation needed] When such a point corresponds to an element of physical geography on land, it can be referred to as a landmar
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Three-dimensional Space
Three-dimensional space
Three-dimensional space
(also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point). This is the informal meaning of the term dimension. In physics and mathematics, a sequence of n numbers can be understood as a location in n-dimensional space. When n = 3, the set of all such locations is called three-dimensional Euclidean space. It is commonly represented by the symbol ℝ3. This serves as a three-parameter model of the physical universe (that is, the spatial part, without considering time) in which all known matter exists. However, this space is only one example of a large variety of spaces in three dimensions called 3-manifolds
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Navigational Track
In navigation, a vessel's or aircraft's course is the cardinal direction along which the vessel or aircraft is to be steered. It is to be distinguished from the vessel or aircraft's heading, which is the compass direction in which the craft's bow or nose is pointed.[1][2][3]Contents1 Course, track, route and heading 2 Relationship between true and magnetic direction 3 Aircraft
Aircraft
heading 4 Relationship between course and heading 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesCourse, track, route and heading[edit] The line connecting the object's consecutive positions on the ground is referred to as the ground track. The track the object was intended to follow is called the route. For ships and aircraft, the route is represented by the great circle line that connects the previous waypoint with the next waypoint. The responsibility of a navigator is to make the track coincide as much as possible with the route. The direction of the route is called the route course
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