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Papilio
See text Papilio
Papilio
is a genus in the swallowtail butterfly family, Papilionidae, as well as the only representative of the tribe Papilionini. The word papilio is Latin
Latin
for butterfly.[1] The genus includes a number of well-known North American species such as the western tiger swallowtail ( Papilio
Papilio
rutulus)
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Taxon
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit. Although neither is required, a taxon is usually known by a particular name and given a particular ranking, especially if and when it is accepted or becomes established. It is not uncommon, however, for taxonomists to remain at odds over what belongs to a taxon and the criteria used for inclusion
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Bird
Birds (Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the world’s most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with approximately ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are more or less developed depending on the species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species of birds
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Rutaceae
Rutoideae Spathelioideae Dictyolomatoideae Toddalioideae Flindersioideae Aurantioideae[2]DiversityAbout 160 genera, totaling over 1600 species.Range of subfamily CneoroideaeRange of subfamily RutoideaeThe Rutaceae
Rutaceae
are a family, commonly known as the rue[3] or citrus family,[4] of flowering plants, usually placed in the order Sapindales. Species of the family generally have flowers that divide into four or five parts, usually with strong scents. They range in form and size from herbs to shrubs and large[5] trees. The most economically important genus in the family is Citrus, which includes the orange (C. × sinensis), lemon (C. × limon), grapefruit (C. × paradisi), and lime (various, mostly C. aurantifolia, the key lime). Boronia
Boronia
is a large Australian genus, some members of which are plants with highly fragrant flowers and are used in commercial oil production
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Murraya
See textMurraya is a genus of flowering plants in the citrus family, Rutaceae. It is distributed in Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands.[1] The center of diversity is in southern China and Southeast Asia.[2] The genus name commemorates the 18th-century German-Swedish herbal doctor Johan Andreas Murray, a student of Linnaeus.[3] This genus is in the subfamily Aurantioideae, which also includes genus Citrus. It is in the subtribe Clauseninae, which are known technically as the remote citroid fruit trees.[4][5] Though hardy and notably fragrant on summer evenings, Murraya is recorded as an invasive weed by some Australian councils.[1] It is spread by birds, self-propagates and the roots can be invasive. Allergic responses to Murraya may include headaches, blocked sinuses and breathing difficulties. [2]Contents1 Description 2 Uses 3 Chemistry 4 Diversity 5 ReferencesDescription[edit] These plants are shrubs or trees
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Australia
Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133Commonwealth of AustraliaFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Advance Australia
Australia
Fair"[N 1]Capital Canberra 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444Largest city SydneyNational language English[N 2]DemonymAustralian Aussie
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Choisya
See text.SynonymsAstrophyllum Torr. & A.Gray[1]Closeup of single Choisya ternata flowerChoisya /ˈʃɔɪziə/[2] is a small genus of aromatic evergreen shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae. Members of the genus are commonly known as Mexican orange due to the similarity of their flowers with those of the closely related orange, both in shape and scent. They are native to southern North America, from Arizona, New Mexico, Texas and south through most of Mexico. In its generic name Humboldt and Bonpland honoured Swiss botanist Jacques Denis Choisy (1799–1859).[3]Contents1 Description 2 Uses 3 Chemistry 4 Species 5 Pests and diseases 6 ReferencesDescription[edit] The species grow to 1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft) tall. The leaves are opposite, leathery, glossy, palmately compound with 3-13 leaflets, each leaflet 3–8 cm (1.2–3.1 in) long and 0.5–3.5 cm (0.20–1.38 in) broad. C. ternata has three broad leaflets, while C
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Calodendrum
Calodendrum is a genus of medium-sized evergreen trees comprising two species from Africa. Calodendrum capense (Cape Chestnut) is a well known tree that is widely cultivated, while Calodendrum eickii is a rare forest tree from Tanzania. The botanical name comes from Greek, kalos means beautiful and dendrum means tree. Both species are harvested for their timber in Africa.[1] References[edit]^ Lovett, Jon C.; Chris K. Ruffo & Roy E. Gereeau. "Field Guide to the Moist Forest Trees of Tanzania" (PDF). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Calodendrum eickii Lord, Tony (2003) Flora : The Gardener's Bible : More than 20,000 garden plants from around the world. London: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-36435-5 Macoboy, Stirling (1979) What Tree is That?, Sydney, Australia (1st ed.: Sydney: Ure Smith)
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Terpenoid
The terpenoids (/ˈtɜːrpɪnɔɪd/ TUR-pin-oyd), sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals similar to terpenes, derived from five-carbon isoprene units assembled and modified in thousands of ways. Most are multicyclic structures that differ from one another not only in functional groups but also in their basic carbon skeletons. These lipids can be found in all classes of living things, and are the largest group of natural products. About 60% of known natural products are terpenoids.[1] Plant
Plant
terpenoids are used extensively for their aromatic qualities and play a role in traditional herbal remedies
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Bangalore, India
Bangalore
Bangalore
(/bæŋɡəˈlɔːr/), officially known as Bengaluru[15] ([ˈbeŋɡəɭuːɾu] ( listen)), is the capital of the Indian state
Indian state
of Karnataka. It has a population of over ten million,[9] making it a megacity and the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India.[16] It is located in southern India
India
on the Deccan Plateau. Its elevation is over 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level, the highest of India's major cities.[17] A succession of South Indian dynasties, the Western Gangas, the Cholas and the Hoysalas, ruled the present region of Bangalore
Bangalore
until in 1537 CE, Kempé Gowdā – a feudal ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire – established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern Bangalore
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Species
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic. For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Ontario
Ontario
Ontario
(/ɒnˈtɛərioʊ/ ( listen); French: [ɔ̃taʁjo]) is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada
Canada
and is located in east-central Canada.[7][8] It is Canada's most populous province[9] accounting for nearly 40 percent[10] of the country's population, and is the second-largest province in total area
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Tribe (biology)
In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic rank above genus, but below family and subfamily.[1][2] It is sometimes subdivided into subtribes. In zoology, examples include the tribes Caprini (goat-antelopes), Hominini
Hominini
(hominins), Bombini
Bombini
(bumblebees), and Thunnini
Thunnini
(tunas). The standard ending for the name of a zoological tribe is "-ini". The tribe Hominini
Hominini
is divided into subtribes by some scientists; subtribe Hominina
Hominina
then comprises "humans". The standard ending for the name of a zoological subtribe is "-ina". In botany, examples include the tribes Acalypheae
Acalypheae
and Hyacintheae. The standard ending for the name of a botanical tribe is "-eae". The tribe Hyacintheae is divided into subtribes, including the subtribe Massoniinae
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Canada
Coordinates: 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95CanadaFlagMotto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare  (Latin) (English: "From Sea to Sea")Anthem: "O Canada"Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen"[1]Capital Ottawa 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667Largest city TorontoOfficial languagesEnglish FrenchEthnic groupsList of ethnicities74.3% European 14.5% Asian 5.1% Indigenous 3.4% Caribbean and Latin American 2.9% African 0.2% Oceanian[2]ReligionList of religions67.2% Christianity 23.9% Non-religious 3.2% Islam 1.5% Hinduism 1.4% Sikhism 1.1% Buddhism 1.0% Judaism 0.6% Other -[3]Demonym CanadianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy[4]• MonarchElizabeth II• Governor GeneralJulie Payette• Prime MinisterJustin Trudeau• Chie
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