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Papaver Somniferum
Papaver
Papaver
somniferum, commonly known as the opium poppy,[2] or breadseed poppy,[3] is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae. It is the species of plant from which opium and poppy seeds are derived and is a valuable ornamental plant, grown in gardens. Its native range is probably the eastern Mediterranean, but is now obscured by ancient introductions and cultivation. This poppy is grown as an agricultural crop on a large scale, for one of three primary purposes. The first is to produce seeds that are eaten by humans, known commonly as poppy seed (poppyseed as an adjective)
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Makowiec (pastry)
The poppy seed roll is a pastry consisting of a roll of sweet yeast bread (a viennoiserie) with a dense, rich, bittersweet filling of poppy seed. An alternative filling is a paste of minced walnuts, or minced chestnuts. It is popular in parts of Central Europe
Central Europe
and Eastern Europe, where it is commonly eaten at Christmas
Christmas
and Easter
Easter
time
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Plant
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. They form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants") that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Variety (botany)
In botanical nomenclature, variety (abbreviated var.; in Latin: varietas) is a taxonomic rank below that of species and subspecies but above that of form.[1] As such, it gets a three-part infraspecific name. It is sometimes recommended that the subspecies rank should be used to recognize geographic distinctiveness, whereas the variety rank is appropriate if the taxon is seen throughout the geographic range of the species.[2]Contents1 Example 2 Definitions 3 Other nomenclature uses 4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyExample[edit] The pincushion cactus, Escobaria vivipara
Escobaria vivipara
(Nutt.) Buxb., is a wide-ranging variable species occurring from Canada
Canada
to Mexico, and found throughout New Mexico
Mexico
below about 2,600 metres (8,500 ft). Nine varieties have been described. Where the varieties of the pincushion cactus meet, they intergrade. The variety Escobaria vivipara var
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Cultivar
The term cultivar[nb 1] most commonly refers to an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characters that are maintained during propagation. More generally, cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). Most cultivars arose in cultivation, but a few are special selections from the wild. Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, camellias, daffodils, rhododendrons, and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form. Similarly, the world's agricultural food crops are almost exclusively cultivars that have been selected for characters such as improved yield, flavour, and resistance to disease, and very few wild plants are now used as food sources
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Double-flowered
"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers.[1][2] The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin
Latin
ablative form meaning "with full flower").[3] The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings
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Pom-pom
A pom-pom – also spelled pom-pon, pompom or pompon – is a decorative ball or tuft of fibrous material. The term may refer to large tufts used by cheerleaders, or a small, tighter ball attached to the top of a hat, also known as a bobble or toorie. Pom-poms may come in many colors, sizes, and varieties and are made from a wide array of materials, including wool, cotton, paper, plastic, thread, glitter and occasionally feathers
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Species Plantarum
Species
Species
Plantarum ( Latin
Latin
for "The Species
Species
of Plants") is a book by Carl Linnaeus, originally published in 1753, which lists every species of plant known at the time, classified into genera
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Poland
Coordinates: 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic
Republic
of Poland Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska  (
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Nut Roll
A nut roll is a pastry consisting of a sweet yeast dough (usually using milk) that is rolled out very thin, spread with a nut paste made from ground nuts and a sweetener like honey, then rolled up into a log shape.[1] This 'log' is either left long and straight or is often bent into a horseshoe shape, egg washed, baked, and then sliced crosswise. Nut rolls resemble a jelly roll (Swiss roll) but usually with more layers of dough and filling, and resemble strudels but with fewer and less delicate dough layers. Fillings commonly have as their main ingredient ground walnuts or poppy seeds. Nut rolls can be found in the United States and in Central European cuisines
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Papaver Orientale
Papaver
Papaver
orientale, the Oriental poppy,[2] is a perennial flowering plant[3] native to the Caucasus, northeastern Turkey, and northern Iran.[4] Oriental poppies grow a mound of leaves that are hairy and finely dissected in spring. They gather energy and bloom in mid-summer. After flowering the foliage dies away entirely, a property that allows their survival in the summer drought of Central Asia. Gardeners can place late-developing plants nearby to fill the developing gap.Contents1 Cultivation1.1 Cultivars2 Related species 3 References 4 SourcesCultivation[edit] Papaver
Papaver
orientale has a USDA hardiness zone of 3-8. It usually thrives in soil pH 6.5 to 7.5 and in full sun or part shade. Seeds are sown after the potential of frost has passed, the average temperature is approximately 21 °C and when soil has thoroughly warmed
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European Union
The European Union
European Union
(EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi), and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states
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Singapore
Singapore (/ˈsɪŋ(ɡ)əpɔːr/ ( listen)), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree (137 kilometres or 85 miles) north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23% (130 square kilometres or 50 square miles). Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore in 1819 as a trading post of the British East India Company; after the latter's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan
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UAE
Coordinates: 24°N 54°E / 24°N 54°E / 24; 54United Arab Emirates الإمارات العربية المتحدة (Arabic) Dawlat-al-Imārāt al-'Arabīyah al-MuttaḥidahFlagEmblemAnthem: عيشي بلادي "Īšiy Bilādī" "Long Live my Nation"Location of  United Arab Emirates  (green) in the Arabian Peninsula  (white)Capital Abu Dhabi 24°28′N 54°22′E / 24.467°N 54.367°E / 24.467; 54.367Largest city Dubai 25°15′N 55°18′E / 25.250°N 55.300°E / 25.250; 55.300Official languages ArabicRecognised national languagesEnglish Hindi Persian Urdu[1]Ethnic groups40% Emirati 11.6% Indian 10.2% Pakistani 9.5% Bangladeshi 6.1% Filipino 15.1% othersReligion IslamDemonym Emirati[2]Government Federal constitutional monarchy• PresidentKhalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan• Prime Minist
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