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Pancastikayasara
Pañcastikayasara (en: the essence of reality), is an ancient Jain text authored by Acharya Kundakunda.[1] Kundakunda
Kundakunda
explains the Jain concepts of dravya (substance) and Ethics. The work serves as a brief version of the Jaina philosophy. There are total 180 verses written in Prakrit
Prakrit
language.[2] The text is about five (panch) āstikāya, substances that have both characteristics, viz
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Jainism
Jainism
Jainism
(/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/),[1] traditionally known as Jain
Jain
Dharma,[2] is an ancient Indian religion.[3] Followers of Jainism
Jainism
are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life.[4] Jains
Jains
trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being Rishabhanatha, who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahāvīra
Mahāvīra
around 500 BCE
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Jain Flag
The flag of Jainism
Jainism
has five colours: orange or red, yellow, white, green and black or dark blue. These five colours represent the Pañca-Parameṣṭhi
Pañca-Parameṣṭhi
(five supreme beings). It also represents the five main vows, small as well as great.Contents1 Overview1.1 Colours 1.2 Swastika 1.3 Three Dots 1.4 Siddhashila
Siddhashila
Chakra2 Photo gallery 3 See also 4 ReferencesOverview[edit] Colours[edit] These five colours represent the "Pañca-Parameṣṭhi" and the five vows, small as well as great:[1]White - represents the arihants, souls who have conquered all passions (anger, attachments, aversion) and have attained omniscience and eternal bliss through self-realization. It also denotes peace or ahimsa (nonviolence). Red - represents the siddha, souls that have attained salvation and truth. It also denotes truthfulness (satya). Yellow - represents the acharya the Masters of Adepts
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Ganadhara
In Jainism, the term Ganadhara
Ganadhara
is used to refer the chief disciple of a Tirthankara. In samavasarana, the Tīrthankara sat on a throne without touching it (about two inches above it).[1] Around, the Tīrthankara sits the Ganadharas.[2] According to Digambara
Digambara
tradition, only a disciple of exceptional brilliance and accomplishment (riddhi) is able to fully assimilate, without doubt, delusion, or misapprehension, the anekanta teachings of a Tirthankara.[3] The presence of such a disciple is mandatory in the samavasarana before Tirthankara
Tirthankara
delivers his sermons
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Siddhasena
Siddhasēna Divākara (Jain Prakrit: सिद्दसेन दिवाकर) was an Digambara
Digambara
monk in the fifth century CE who wrote works on Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
and epistemology.[1] He was like the illuminating lamp of the Jain order and therefore came to be known as Divākara "Lamp-Maker". He is credited with the authorship of many books, most of which are not available. Sanmatitarka (‘The Logic of the True Doctrine’) is the first major Jain work on logic written in Sanskrit.[2][3]Contents1 Life 2 Thought 3 Works 4 Notes 5 ReferencesLife[edit] Siddhasena
Siddhasena
Divakara is said to have lived from 500 CE to 610 CE. He was a Brahmin by birth and a scholar. He was initiated by Acharya Vruddhavadi.[4] According to the tradition, Siddhasena
Siddhasena
Divakara once planned to translate all the Jaina works from prakrit to Sanskrit
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Samantabhadra (Jain Monk)
Samantabhadra was a Digambara
Digambara
acharya (head of the monastic order) who lived about the later part of the second century CE[1][2] He was a proponent of the Jaina doctrine of Anekantavada. The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra is the most popular work of Samantabhadra. Samantabhadra lived after Umaswami
Umaswami
but before Pujyapada.Contents1 Life 2 Thought 3 Works 4 Praise 5 References 6 SourcesLife[edit] Samantabhadra is said to have lived from 150 CE to 250 CE. He was from southern India during the time of Chola dynasty. He was a poet, logician, eulogist and an accomplished linguist.[3] He is credited with spreading Jainism
Jainism
in southern India.[4] Samantabhadra, in his early stage of asceticism, was attacked with a disease known as bhasmaka (the condition of insatiable hunger).[5] As, digambara monks don't eat more than once in a day, he endured great pain
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Haribhadra
Haribhadra
Haribhadra
Suri was a Svetambara
Svetambara
mendicant Jain leader and author. There are multiple contradictory dates assigned to his birth. According to tradition, he lived c. 459–529 CE. However, in 1919, a Jain monk named Jinavijayi pointed out that given his familiarity with Dharmakirti, a more likely choice would be sometime after 650.[1] In his writings, Haribhadra
Haribhadra
identifies himself as a student of Jinabhadra and Jinadatta of the Vidyadhara Kula. There are several, somewhat contradictory, accounts of his life
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Yashovijaya
Yashovijaya
Yashovijaya
(IAST: Yaśovijaya, 1624–1688), a seventeenth-century Jain philosopher-monk, was a notable Indian philosopher and logician. He was a thinker, prolific writer and commentator who had a strong and lasting influence on Jainism.[1] He was a disciple of Muni Nayavijaya in the lineage of Jain monk Hiravijaya
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Digambara
Digambara
Digambara
(/dɪˈɡʌmbərə/; "sky-clad") is one of the two major schools of Jainism, the other being Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
(white-clad). The word Digambara
Digambara
(Sanskrit) is a combination of two words: dig (directions) and ambara (sky), referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space. Digambara
Digambara
monks do not wear any clothes. The monks carry picchi, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers (for clearing the place before walking or sitting), kamandalu (a water container made of wood), and shastra (scripture). One of the most important scholar-monks of Digambara tradition was Kundakunda. He authored Prakrit
Prakrit
texts such as the Samayasāra
Samayasāra
and the Pravacanasāra
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Śvētāmbara
The Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
(/ʃwɛˈtʌmbərə/; Sanskrit: श्वेतांबर or श्वेतपट śvētapaṭa; also spelled Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetambar, Swetambar or Shwetambar) is one of the two main branches of Jainism, the other being the Digambara. Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
"white-clad" is a term describing its ascetics' practice of wearing white clothes, which sets it apart from the Digambara
Digambara
"sky-clad" Jainas, whose ascetic practitioners go naked. Śvētāmbaras, unlike Digambaras, do not believe that ascetics must practice nudity.[1] Śvētāmbaras also believe that women are able to obtain moksha. Śvētāmbaras maintain that the 19th Tirthankara, Māllīnātha, was a woman.Contents1 History 2 Denominations 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] The Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
tradition follows the lineage of Sthulabhadra
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History Of Jainism
History of Jainism
Jainism
concerns a religion founded in Ancient India
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Jain Symbols
Jain symbols
Jain symbols
are symbols based on the Jain philosophy.Contents1 Swastika 2 Symbol
Symbol
of Ahimsa 3 Jain emblem3.1 Fundamental concepts 3.2 Usage4 Jain flag 5 Om 6 Ashtamangala6.1 Other symbols7 Photo gallery 8 See also 9 Notes 10 ReferencesSwastika[edit] Main article: Swastika The swastika is an important Jain symbol. The four arms of the swastika symbolize the four states of existence as per Jainism:[1][2]Heavenly beings (devas encantadia") Human Benefits Hellish being Tiryancha (subhuman like flora or fauna)It represents the perpetual nature of the universe in the material world, where a creature is destined to one of those states based on their karma
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Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
(Pārśvanātha), also known as Parshva (Pārśva), was the 23rd of 24 Tirthankaras (ford-maker, teacher) of Jainism.[6] He is the earliest Jain Tirthankara
Tirthankara
who is generally acknowledged as a historical figure.[7][8] His biography is uncertain, with Jain sources placing him between the 9th and 8th century BC, and historians stating he may have lived in 8th or 7th century BC
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Parasparopagraho Jivanam
Parasparopagraho Jīvānām (Sanskrit) is a Jain aphorism from the Tattvārtha Sūtra [5.21]. It is translated as "Souls render service to one another".[1] It is also translated as, "All life is bound together by mutual support and interdependence."[2] These translations are virtually the same (by virtue, that is), because Jains believe that every living being, from a plant or a bacterium to human, has a soul and the concept forms the very basis of Jainism. ("Soul". Wikipedia. ) Motto of Jainism[edit] The aphorism Parasparopagraho Jīvānām has been accepted as the motto of Jainism.[3] It stresses the philosophy of non-violence and ecological harmony on which the Jain ethics and doctrine—especially the doctrines of Ahimsa and Anekantavada—are based
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Jain Schools And Branches
Jainism
Jainism
is an Indian religion which is traditionally believed to be propagated by twenty-four spiritual teachers known as tirthankara. Broadly, Jainism
Jainism
is divided into two major sects, Digambara
Digambara
and Svetambara. These are further divided into different sub-sects and traditions. While there are differences in practices, the core philosophy and main principles of each sect is same.Contents1 Schism 2 Digambara2.1 Monastic orders3 Svetambara3.1 Svetambara
Svetambara
sub-sects3.1.1 Sthanakavasi 3.1.2 Murtipujaka 3.1.3 Terapanth4 Others 5 Yapaniya 6 References6.1 Citations 6.2 SourcesSchism[edit] See also: Schism
Schism
and Sect Traditionally, the original doctrine of Jainism
Jainism
was contained in scriptures called Purva. There were fourteen Purva
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Timeline Of Jainism
Jainism
Jainism
is an ancient Indian religion
Indian religion
belonging to the śramaṇa tradition. It prescribes ahimsa (non-violence) towards all living beings to the greatest possible extent. The three main teachings of Jainism
Jainism
are ahimsa, anekantavada (non-absolutism), aparigraha (non-possessiveness). Followers of Jainism
Jainism
take five main vows: ahimsa, satya (not lying), asteya (non stealing), brahmacharya (chastity), and aparigraha. Monks follow them completely whereas śrāvakas (householders) observe them partially
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