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Pallava
The Pallava dynasty
Pallava dynasty
was a South Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of what is today southern India. They gained prominence after the eclipse of the Satavahana dynasty, whom the Pallavas served as feudatories.[2][3] Pallavas became a major power during the reign of Mahendravarman I (571 – 630 CE) and Narasimhavarman I
Narasimhavarman I
(630 – 668 CE) and dominated the Telugu and northern parts of the Tamil region for about 600 years until the end of the 9th century
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Pandu Rajar Dhibi
Pandu
Pandu
Rajar Dhibi (Bengali: পাণ্ডু রাজার ঢিপি) is an archaeological site in Ausgram II
Ausgram II
block in the Sadar North subdivision of Purba Bardhaman district
Purba Bardhaman district
in the Indian state of West Bengal. It was the first Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
site discovered in West Bengal. The common man believes that the main mound at Pandu Rajar Dhibi is associated with King Pandu
Pandu
mentioned in the epic Mahabharata, hence the name came into being from the folklore .[1][2]Contents1 Location 2 Excavations 3 The People and Their Culture 4 Significance 5 Limitations 6 ReferencesLocation[edit] It is located near the southern bank of Ajay River and excavations have been made near Rajpotdanga and Panduk villages.[1][2] Excavations[edit] The site was first excavated by B.B
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Chalcolithic
Near East Ghassulian
Ghassulian
culture, Naqada culture, Uruk periodEuropeYamna culture, Corded Ware Cernavodă culture, Decea Mureşului culture, Gorneşti culture, Gumelniţa–Karanovo culture, Petreşti culture, Coțofeni culture Remedello culture, Gaudo culture, Monte Claro cultureCentral AsiaYamna culture, Botai culture, BMAC culture, Afanasevo cultureSouth AsiaPeriodisation of the Indus Valley
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UNESCO World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area)
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Madrasian Culture
The Madrasian culture is a prehistoric archaeological culture of India, dated to the Lower Paleolithic, the earliest subdivision of the Stone Age.[1][2] It belongs to the Acheulian industry, and some scholars consider the distinction between the Madrasian and the broader, regional Acheulian tradition defunct.[3][4] The culture is characterized by bifacial handaxes and cleavers,[5] but also includes flake tools, microliths and other chopping tools. Most were made from quartzite.[6] The Madrasian was named for its type site of Attirampakkam, near to the city of Madras (now known as Chennai), discovered by British archaeologist and geologist Robert Bruce Foote
Robert Bruce Foote
in 1863.[2][3] The oldest tools at Attirampakkam have been dated to 1.5 million years ago using cosmic-ray exposure dating.[7] See also[edit]South Asian Stone Age Soanian
Soanian
cultureReferences[edit]^ Armand, J (1985)
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Soanian
The Soanian
Soanian
is an archaeological culture of the Lower Paleolithic
Lower Paleolithic
in the Siwalik region of the Indian subcontinent.[1] Contemporary to the Acheulean, it is named after the Soan Valley in Pakistan. Soanian sites are found along the Sivalik region in present-day India, Nepal and Pakistan.[2]Contents1 Findings 2 Spread across Shivalik Hills region 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksFindings[edit]ChauntraKhasala KalanSivalik HillsSoan RiverMap of the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
showing important sites of the Soanian culture.The term "Soan Culture" was first used by Hellmut De Terra in 1936,[3] but D. N
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Bhirrana
Bhirrana, also Bhirdana and Birhana, is a small village located in Fatehabad District, in the Indian state of Haryana.[1][2]Contents1 Location 2 Excavations 3 Dating 4 Cultures 5 Dancing girl graffiti 6 Other findings 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 Further reading 11 External linksLocation[edit] Bhirrana
Bhirrana
siteLocation Haryana, IndiaCoordinates 29°33′15″N 75°33′55″E / 29.55417°N 75.56528°E / 29.55417; 75.56528Length 190 m (620 ft)Width 240 m (790 ft)HistoryFounded Approximately 7570 BCEAbandoned Approximately 2600 BCEPeriods Hakra Wares to Mature HarappanCultures Indus Valley CivilizationSite notesExcavation dates 2003-04, 2004–05, 2005-06The site is situated about 220 km to the northwest of New Delhi on the New Delhi-Fazilka national highway and about 14 km northeast of the district headquarters on the Bhuna road in the Fatehabad district
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Edakkal Caves
Maritime contacts Sangam period Tamilakam Cheras Ays Ezhil Malai Confluence of religions Venad
Venad
- Kingdom of Quilon Calicut Kolattunadu Cochin Minor principalities Portuguese period Dutch period Rise of Travancore Mysorean interlude British Period Battle of Quilon Communism in Kerala Unification of KeralaOther topics Geography Economy Architecture Fortsv t e Edakkal
Edakkal
Caves (Malayalam: ഇടക്കൽ ഗുഹകൾ) are two natural caves at a remote location at Edakkal, 25 km (15.5 mi) from Kalpetta
Kalpetta
in the Wayanad district
Wayanad district
of Kerala
Kerala
in India's Western Ghats. They lie 1,200 m (3,900 ft) above sea level on Ambukutty Mala, near an ancient trade route connecting the high mountains of Mysore to the ports of the Malabar coast
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Feudatories
A vassal[1] is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe. The obligations often included military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain privileges, usually including land held as a tenant or fief.[2] The term is applied to similar arrangements in other feudal societies. In contrast, fealty (fidelitas) was sworn, unconditional loyalty to a monarch.[3]Contents1 Western vassalage 2 Difference between "vassal" and "vassal state" 3 Feudal
Feudal
Japanese equivalents 4 See also4.1 Similar terms5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksWestern vassalage[edit] In fully developed vassalage, the lord and the vassal would take part in a commendation ceremony composed of two parts, the homage and the fealty, including the use of Christian sacraments to show its sacred importance
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Telugu Language
 India Spoken in these States and union territories of India:Andhra Pradesh TelanganaLanguage codesISO 639-1 teISO 639-2 telISO 639-3 telGlottolog telu1262  Telugu[3] oldt1249  Old Telugu[4]Linguasphere 49-DBA-aaTelugu is native to Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and TelanganaThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.Telugu (English: /ˈtɛlʊɡuː/;[5] తెలుగు [t̪el̪uɡu]) is a South-central Dravidian language
Dravidian language
native to India
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Prakrit Language
The Prakrits (Sanskrit: प्राकृती prākṛta, Shauraseni: pāuda, Jain Prakrit: pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages.[2][3] The Ardhamagadhi (or simply Magadhi) Prakrit, which was used extensively to write the scriptures of Jainism, is often considered to be the definitive form of Prakrit, while others are considered variants thereof. Prakrit
Prakrit
grammarians would give the full grammar of Ardhamagadhi first, and then define the other grammars with relation to it
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Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected.[1] Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some[which?] elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Sanskrit Language
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India: 14,135 Indians claimed Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India:[2] Nepal: 1,669 Nepalis
Nepalis
in 2011
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Badami
Badami, formerly known as Vatapi, is a town and headquarters of a taluk by the same name, in the Bagalkot district
Bagalkot district
of Karnataka, India. It was the regal capital of the Badami Chalukyas
Badami Chalukyas
from 540 to 757 AD. It is famous for its rock cut structural temples. It is located in a ravine at the foot of a rugged, red sandstone outcrop that surrounds Agastya lake
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Sri Lanka
Coordinates: 7°N 81°E / 7°N 81°E / 7; 81Democratic Socialist Republic
Republic
of Sri Lanka ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය (Sinhalese) Srī Lankā prajātāntrika samājavādī janarajaya இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சோசலிச குடியரசு (Tamil) Ilaṅkai jaṉanāyaka sōsalisa kuṭiyarasuFlagEmblemAnthem: "Sri Lanka
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Xuanzang
Xuanzang
Xuanzang
(Chinese: 玄奘; pinyin: xuánzàng; Wade–Giles: Hsüan-tsang; Mandarin: [ɕɥɛ̌ntsâŋ]; fl. c. 602–664) was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India
India
in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism
Buddhism
and Indian Buddhism
Buddhism
during the early Tang dynasty.[1][2] Born in what is now Henan
Henan
province around 602, from boyhood he took to reading religious books, including the Chinese classics and the writings of ancient sages. While residing in the city of Luoyang
Luoyang
(in Henan
Henan
in Central China), Xuanzang
Xuanzang
was ordained as a śrāmaṇera (novice monk) at the age of thirteen
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