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Paleozoic
The Paleozoic
Paleozoic
(or Palaeozoic) Era ( /ˌpeɪliəˈzoʊɪk, ˌpæ-/;[1][2] from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life"[3]) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. It is the longest of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eras, lasting from 541 to 251.902 million years ago, and is subdivided into six geologic periods (from oldest to youngest): the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian. The Paleozoic
Paleozoic
comes after the Neoproterozoic Era of the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
Eon and is followed by the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era. The Paleozoic
Paleozoic
was a time of dramatic geological, climatic, and evolutionary change
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Periodic Function
In mathematics, a periodic function is a function that repeats its values in regular intervals or periods. The most important examples are the trigonometric functions, which repeat over intervals of 2π radians. Periodic functions are used throughout science to describe oscillations, waves, and other phenomena that exhibit periodicity. Any function that is not periodic is called aperiodic.An illustration of a periodic function with period P . displaystyle P
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda,[1][3] which includes insects, arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans. The term Arthropoda as originally proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora. Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin, often mineralised with calcium carbonate. The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting. Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments
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Vascular Plants
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species [5]) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant. They also have a specialized non-lignified tissue (the phloem) to conduct products of photosynthesis. Vascular plants include the clubmosses, horsetails, ferns, gymnosperms (including conifers) and angiosperms (flowering plants). Scientific names for the group include Tracheophyta[6][4]:251 and Tracheobionta.[7]Contents1 Characteristics 2 Phylogeny 3 Nutrient distribution3.1 Transpiration 3.2 Absorption 3.3 Conduction4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyCharacteristics[edit] Vascular plants are distinguished by two primary characteristics:Vascular plants have vascular tissues which distribute resources through the plant
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Apex Predator
An apex predator, also known as an alpha predator or top predator, is a predator at the top of a food chain, upon which no other animals prey.[a][4][5] Apex predators are usually defined in terms of trophic dynamics, meaning that they occupy the highest trophic levels and serve as keystone species, vital to their ecosystems. One study of marine food webs defined apex predators as those feeding at trophic levels above four.[6] Food chains are often far shorter on land, usually limited to the third trophic level – for example, wolves prey mostly upon large herbivores
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Ordovician–Silurian Extinction Events
The Ordovician– Silurian
Silurian
extinction events, when combined, are the second-largest of the five major extinction events in Earth's history in terms of percentage of genera that became extinct
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Class (biology)
In biological classification, class (Latin: classis) is:a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks in descending order of size are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, order, family, genus, and species, with class fitting between phylum and order. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the prefix sub-: subclass (Latin: subclassis). a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is classes (Latin classes)Example: Dogs are in the class Mammalia.The composition of each class is determined by a taxonomist. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists taking different positions. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing a class, but for well-known animals there is likely to be consensus. In botany, classes are now rarely discussed
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Tasmania
Tasmania
Tasmania
(/tæzˈmeɪniə/;[11] abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia. It is located 240 km (150 mi) to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by the Bass Strait
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Australia
Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133Commonwealth of AustraliaFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Advance Australia
Australia
Fair"[N 1]Capital Canberra 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444Largest city SydneyNational language English[N 2]DemonymAustralian Aussie (colloquial)[3][4]Government Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy• 
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Central Africa
Central Africa
Africa
is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda
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Glacier
A glacier (US: /ˈɡleɪʃər/ or UK: /ˈɡlæsiə/) is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses, seracs, and other distinguishing features. They also abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of bodies of water. On Earth, 99% of glacial ice is contained within vast ice sheets in the polar regions, but glaciers may be found in mountain ranges on every continent including Oceania's high-latitude oceanic islands such as New Zealand
New Zealand
and Papua New Guinea
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Paleoclimatology
Paleoclimatology
Paleoclimatology
(in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth. It uses a variety of proxy methods from the Earth
Earth
and life sciences to obtain data previously preserved within things such as rocks, sediments, ice sheets, tree rings, corals, shells, and microfossils
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Coal
Coal
Coal
is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal
Coal
is composed primarily of carbon, along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.[1] Coal
Coal
is a fossil fuel that forms when dead plant matter is converted into peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, then sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal, and lastly anthracite. This involves biological and geological processes
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Forest
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.[1] Hundreds of more precise definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing and ecological function.[2][3][4] According to the widely used[5][6] Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization
definition, forests covered 4 billion hectares (9.9×109 acres) (15 million square miles) or approximately 30 percent of the world's land area in 2006.[4] Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem of Earth, and are distributed across the globe.[7] Forests account for 75% of the gross primary productivity of the Earth's biosphere, and contain 80% of the Earth's plant biomass.[7] Forests at different latitudes and elevations form distinctly different ecozones: boreal forests near the poles, tropical forests near the equator and temperate forests at mid-latitudes
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Diapsid
Diapsids ("two arches") are a group of amniote tetrapods that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous
Carboniferous
period.[1] The diapsids are extremely diverse, and include all crocodiles, lizards, snakes, tuatara, turtles,[2] and dinosaurs (both avian and non-avian). Although some diapsids have lost either one hole (lizards), or both holes (snakes and turtles), or have a heavily restructured skull (modern birds), they are still classified as diapsids based on their ancestry
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Euryapsida
Euryapsida
Euryapsida
is a polyphyletic (unnatural, as the various members are not closely related) group of reptiles that are distinguished by a single temporal fossa, an opening behind the orbit, under which the post-orbital and squamosal bones articulate. They are different from Synapsida, which also have a single opening behind the orbit, by the placement of the fenestra. In synapsids, this opening is below the articulation of the post-orbital and squamosal bones
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