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Paleomagnetism
This term is also sometimes used for natural remanent magnetization.Magnetic stripes are the result of reversals of the Earth's field and seafloor spreading. New oceanic crust is magnetized as it forms and then it moves away from the ridge in both directions. The models show a ridge (a) about 5 million years ago (b) about 2 to 3 million years ago and (c) in the present.[1] Paleomagnetism
Paleomagnetism
(or palaeomagnetism in the United Kingdom) is the study of the record of the Earth's magnetic field
Earth's magnetic field
in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials. Certain minerals in rocks lock-in a record of the direction and intensity of the magnetic field when they form. This record provides information on the past behavior of Earth's magnetic field and the past location of tectonic plates
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Magnetic Inclination
Magnetic dip, dip angle, or magnetic inclination is the angle made with the horizontal by the Earth's magnetic field
Earth's magnetic field
lines. This angle varies at different points on the Earth's surface. Positive values of inclination indicate that the magnetic field of the Earth is pointing downward, into the Earth, at the point of measurement, and negative values indicate that it is pointing upward. The dip angle is in principle the angle made by the needle of a vertically held compass, though in practice ordinary compass needles may be weighted against dip or may be unable to move freely in the correct plane
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North Pole
Coordinates: 90°N 0°W / 90°N -0°E / 90; -0An azimuthal projection showing the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
and the North Pole. The map also shows the 75th parallel north
75th parallel north
and 60th parallel north. Sea ice
Sea ice
at the North Pole
North Pole
in 2006The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole
North Pole
or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface. The North Pole
North Pole
is the northernmost point on the Earth, lying diametrically opposite the South Pole. It defines geodetic latitude 90° North, as well as the direction of true north
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Polar Drift
Polar drift
Polar drift
is a geological phenomenon caused by variations in the flow of molten iron in Earth's outer core, resulting in changes in the orientation of Earth's magnetic field, and hence the position of the magnetic north and south poles. The North Magnetic Pole
North Magnetic Pole
is approximately 965 kilometres (600 mi) from the geographic north pole. The pole drifts considerably each day, and since 2007 it moves about 55 to 60 km (34 to 37 mi) per year as a result of this phenomenon.[1] The South Magnetic Pole
South Magnetic Pole
is constantly shifting due to changes in the Earth's magnetic field. As of 2005 it was calculated to lie at 64°31′48″S 137°51′36″E / 64.53000°S 137.86000°E / -64.53000; 137.86000,[2] placing it off the coast of Antarctica, between Adelie Land
Adelie Land
and Wilkes Land
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Morley-Vine-Matthews Hypothesis
The Vine–Matthews–Morley hypothesis, also known as the Morley–Vine–Matthews hypothesis, was the first key scientific test of the seafloor spreading theory of continental drift and plate tectonics. History[edit] Harry Hess proposed the sea-floor spreading hypothesis in 1960 (published in 1962). According to Hess, seafloor was created at mid-oceanic ridges by the convection of the earth's mantle, pushing and spreading the older crust away from the ridge.[1] Geophysicist Frederick John Vine and the Canadian geologist Lawrence W. Morley independently realized that if Hess’s seafloor spreading theory was correct, then the rocks surrounding the mid-oceanic ridges should show symmetric patterns of magnetization reversals using newly collected magnetic surveys
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Polarity (physics)
In physics, polarity is an attribute with two possible values. Polarity is a basic feature of the universe.An electric charge can have either positive or negative polarity. A voltage or potential difference between two points of an electric circuit has a polarity, describing which of the two points has the higher electric potential. A magnet has a polarity, in that it has two poles described as "north" and "south" pole. More generally, the polarity of an electric or magnetic field can be viewed as the sign of the vectors describing the field. The spin of an entity in quantum mechanics can have a polarity – parallel or anti-parallel to a given direction.See also[edit]Polarization (other) Chemical polarityThis physics-related article is a stub
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Sea Floor Spreading
Seafloor spreading
Seafloor spreading
is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.Contents1 Significance 2 Spreading center 3 Incipient spreading 4 Continued spreading and subduction 5 Debate and search for mechanism 6 Sea floor global topography: half-space model 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksSignificance[edit] Seafloor spreading
Seafloor spreading
helps explain continental drift in the theory of plate tectonics. When oceanic plates diverge, tensional stress causes fractures to occur in the lithosphere
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Iron
Iron
Iron
is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth
Earth
is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars, where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova, which scatters the iron into space. Like the other group 8 elements, ruthenium and osmium, iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +7, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust
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Brunhes-Matuyama Reversal
The Brunhes–Matuyama reversal, named after Bernard Brunhes and Motonori Matuyama, was a geologic event, approximately 781,000 years ago, when the Earth's magnetic field
Earth's magnetic field
last underwent reversal.[1][2] Estimations vary as to the abruptness of the reversal: it might have extended over several thousand years,[3] or much more quickly,[4][5][6] perhaps within a human lifetime.[7] The apparent duration at any particular location varied from 1,200 to 10,000 years depending on geomagnetic latitude and local effects of non-dipole components of the Earth's field during the transition.[3] The Brunhes–Matuyama reversal is a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP), selected by the International Commission on Stratigraphy as a marker for the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, also known as the Ionian Stage.[8] It is useful in dating ocean sediment cores and subaerially erupted volcanics
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Quaternary
Quaternary
Quaternary
( /kwəˈtɜːrnəri/) is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic
Cenozoic

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Motonori Matuyama
Motonori Matuyama
Motonori Matuyama
(松山 基範, Matsuyama Motonori, October 25, 1884 – January 27, 1958) was a Japanese geophysicist who was the first to surmise that the Earth's magnetic field
Earth's magnetic field
had undergone reversals in the past. The era of reversed polarity preceding the current Brunhes era of normal polarity is called the Matuyama reversed chron and the boundary between them is called the Brunhes–Matuyama reversal. Life[edit] Matuyama was born at Uyeda (now Usa) in Japan, the son of a Zen
Zen
abbot. He was educated at the University of Hiroshima and Kyoto Imperial University, where he was appointed to a lectureship in 1913. After spending the period 1919–21 at the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
working with Thomas C. Chamberlin he was made professor of theoretical geology at Kyoto Imperial University
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Igneous
Igneous rock
Igneous rock
(derived from the Latin
Latin
word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rock
Igneous rock
is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. The magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in either a planet's mantle or crust. Typically, the melting is caused by one or more of three processes: an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition
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Biomagnetism
Biomagnetism is the phenomenon of magnetic fields produced by living organisms; it is a subset of bioelectromagnetism. In contrast, organisms' use of magnetism in navigation is magnetoception and the study of the magnetic fields' effects on organisms is magnetobiology. (The word biomagnetism has also been used loosely to include magnetobiology, further encompassing almost any combination of the words magnetism, cosmology, and biology, such as "magnetoastrobiology".) The origin of the word biomagnetism is unclear, but seems to have appeared several hundred years ago, linked to the expression "animal magnetism". The present scientific definition took form in the 1970s, when an increasing number of researchers began to measure the magnetic fields produced by the human body
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Curie Temperature
In physics and materials science, the Curie temperature
Curie temperature
(TC), or Curie point, is the temperature at which certain materials lose their permanent magnetic properties, to be replaced by induced magnetism. The Curie temperature
Curie temperature
is named after Pierre Curie, who showed that magnetism was lost at a critical temperature.[1] The force of magnetism is determined by the magnetic moment, a dipole moment within an atom which originates from the angular momentum and spin of electrons. Materials have different structures of intrinsic magnetic moments that depend on temperature; the Curie temperature
Curie temperature
is the critical point at which a material's intrinsic magnetic moments change direction. Permanent magnetism is caused by the alignment of magnetic moments and induced magnetism is created when disordered magnetic moments are forced to align in an applied magnetic field
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Spinel
Spinel
Spinel
( /spɪˈnɛl/) is the magnesium aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals. It has the formula MgAl2O4 in the cubic crystal system. Its name comes from Latin "spina" (arrow).[1] Balas ruby is an old name for a rose-tinted variety of spinel.Contents1 Properties 2 Occurrence 3 Synthetic spinel 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksProperties[edit]Cut spinel Spinel
Spinel
crystallizes in the isometric system; common crystal forms are octahedra, usually twinned. It has an imperfect octahedral cleavage and a conchoidal fracture. Its hardness is 8, its specific gravity is 3.5–4.1, and it is transparent to opaque with a vitreous to dull luster. It may be colorless, but is usually various shades of pink, rose, red, blue, green, yellow, brown, black, or (uncommon) violet. There is a unique natural white spinel, now lost, that surfaced briefly in what is now Sri Lanka
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