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Paleolithic
The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
or Palaeolithic /ˌpæliːəˈlɪθɪk/ is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.[1] It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools by hominins c. 3.3 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
c. 11,650 cal BP.[2] The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
is followed in Europe by the Mesolithic, although the date of the transition varies geographically by several thousand years. During the Paleolithic, hominins grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and fishing, hunting or scavenging wild animals.[3] The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans also used wood and bone tools
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Eburran Industry
Eburran industry is the name of the East African tool assemblage from 13,000 BCE and thereafter around Lake Nakuru
Lake Nakuru
in the Ol Doinyo Eburru volcano complex (name giving) in the Rift Valley in Kenya.[1] The culture was a time known as "Kenyan Capsian" because the findings resemble those of the North African Capsian
Capsian
trans-Saharan culture. It was also formerly called "Kenyan Aurignacian". The assemblages, as recovered from Gamble's Cave and Nderit Drift, comprise large backed blades, crescentric microliths, burins, and end-scrapers
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Halfan Culture
The Halfan industry is one of the Late Epipalaeolithic
Epipalaeolithic
industries of the Nile Valley
Nile Valley
that began to appear by 19,000-17,000 BP.[1] It is one of the earliest known backed-bladelet industries in Northern Africa, largely dating between 19,000 and 14,000 BP in Nubia
Nubia
and Egypt.[2] The Halfan was formerly seen as the parent culture of the Iberomaurusian
Iberomaurusian
industry in the Maghreb. Since the earliest Iberomaurusian
Iberomaurusian
is dated to ≥ 23,950 BP, it is more likely that the Halfan culture is descended from Ibero-maurusian culture. The Halfan culture is believed to have descended from the Khormusan Culture [3] [4] which depended on specialized hunting, fishing, and collecting techniques for survival. The Halfan people survived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan tradition of fishing
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Glyptodon
Glyptodon
Glyptodon
(from Greek for "grooved or carved tooth" – Greek γλυπτός sculptured + ὀδοντ-, ὀδούς tooth[4]) was a genus of large, armored mammals of the subfamily Glyptodontinae (glyptodonts or glyptodontines) – relatives of armadillos – that lived during the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch. It was roughly the same size and weight as a Volkswagen Beetle, though flatter in shape
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Pliocene
The Pliocene
Pliocene
( /ˈplaɪəˌsiːn/;[2][3] also Pleiocene[4]) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58[5] million years BP. It is the second and youngest epoch of the Neogene
Neogene
Period in the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era. The Pliocene
Pliocene
follows the Miocene Epoch and is followed by the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Epoch. Prior to the 2009 revision of the geologic time scale, which placed the four most recent major glaciations entirely within the Pleistocene, the Pliocene
Pliocene
also included the Gelasian stage, which lasted from 2.588 to 1.806 million years ago, and is now included in the Pleistocene.[6] As with other older geologic periods, the geological strata that define the start and end are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain
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Qadan Culture
The Qadan culture
Qadan culture
(13,000-9,000 BC) was an ancient culture that, archaeological evidence suggests, originated in Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
(present day south Egypt) approximately 15,000 years ago [1][2]. This way of life is estimated to have persisted for approximately 4,000 years, and was characterized by hunting, as well as a unique approach to food gathering that incorporated the preparation and consumption of wild grasses and grains.[1][2] Systematic efforts were made by the Qadan people to water, care for, and harvest local plant life, but grains were not planted in ordered rows
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Hominina
Homo
Homo
sapiens † Homo
Homo
erectus other species or subspecies suggestedSynonymsSynonyms Africanthropus
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Sebilian
Sebilian is a pre-historic archaeological culture in Egypt
Egypt
spanning the period c.13,000-10,000 B.C.Contents1 Location 2 Dating 3 Characteristics 4 ReferencesLocation[edit] The culture is known by the name given by Edmond Vignard to finds he located at Kom Ombo
Kom Ombo
on the banks of the river Nile from 1919 continuing into the 1920s. Nine sites were found by A. Marks in the area of the Wadi Halfa; Wendorf located three approximately 10 kilometres from Abu Simbel
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Khormusan
Khormusan industry was a Paleolithic
Paleolithic
archeological industry in Egypt and Sudan dated at 42,000 to 18,000 BP.[1] The Khormusan industry in Egypt began between 42,000 and 32,000 BP.[2] Khormusans developed tools not only from stone but also from animal bones and hematite.[2] They also developed small arrow heads resembling those of Native Americans,[2] but no bows have been found.[2] The end of the Khormusan industry came around 18,000 BP. with the appearance of other cultures in the region, including the Gemaian.[3] References[edit]^ Goder-Goldberger, Mae (2013). "The Khormusan: Evidence for an MSA East African industry in Nubia". Quaternary International. 300: 182–94. Bibcode:2013QuInt.300..182G. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2012.11.031.  ^ a b c d "Ancient Egyptian Culture: Paleolithic
Paleolithic
Egypt". Emuseum. Minnesota: Minnesota State University
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Bohunician
Bohunician industry was a paleolithic archeological industry in South-Central and East Europe. The earliest artifacts assigned to this culture are dated using radiocarbon dating at 48,000 BP. Which may make the earliest presence of modern humans in Europe predating Aurignacian
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Périgordian
Périgordian is a term for several distinct but related Upper Palaeolithic cultures which are thought by some archaeologists to represent a contiguous tradition. It existed between c.35,000 BP and c.20,000 BP. To Pesesse (2013), the Perigordian is one of the construction of prehistorians (namely Denis Peyrony (fr) 1933, 1936, 1946) most distantly removed from archaeological data.[1] The earliest culture in the tradition is known as the Châtelperronian which produced denticulate tools and distinctive flint knives. It is argued that this was superseded by the Gravettian
Gravettian
with its Font Robert points and Noailles burins
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Iberomaurusian
The Iberomaurusian
Iberomaurusian
("of Iberia and Mauritania"; it was once believed that it extended into Spain) or Oranian is a backed bladelet lithic industry found throughout North Africa.[1] Its name, meaning "of Iberia and Mauritania", is based on Pallary (1909)'s belief[2] that it extended over the strait of Gibraltar into Spain and Portugal, a theory now generally discounted (Garrod 1938).[3] Pallary (1909) originally described the industry based on material found at the site of Abri Mouillah.[2] Because the name of the
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Madrasian Culture
The Madrasian culture is a prehistoric archaeological culture of India, dated to the Lower Paleolithic, the earliest subdivision of the Stone Age.[1][2] It belongs to the Acheulian industry, and some scholars consider the distinction between the Madrasian and the broader, regional Acheulian tradition defunct.[3][4] The culture is characterized by bifacial handaxes and cleavers,[5] but also includes flake tools, microliths and other chopping tools. Most were made from quartzite.[6] The Madrasian was named for its type site of Attirampakkam, near to the city of Madras (now known as Chennai), discovered by British archaeologist and geologist Robert Bruce Foote
Robert Bruce Foote
in 1863.[2][3] The oldest tools at Attirampakkam have been dated to 1.5 million years ago using cosmic-ray exposure dating.[7] See also[edit]South Asian Stone Age Soanian
Soanian
cultureReferences[edit]^ Armand, J (1985)
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Khiamian
The Khiamian
Khiamian
(also referred to as El Khiam
El Khiam
or El-Khiam) is a period of the Near-Eastern Neolithic, marking the transition between the Natufian and the Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Neolithic
A
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Epigravettian
Georges Laplace (fr), 1958 (broader-than-modern meaning)[2] Broglio, Laplace et al., 1963 (modern meaning, as “Tardigravettiano”)[3]The Epigravettian
Epigravettian
(Greek: epi "above, on top of", and Gravettian) was one of the last archaeological industries of the European Upper Paleolithic. It arose after the Last Glacial Maximum
Last Glacial Maximum
around ~21,000 cal. BP. It is related to the Gravettian, of which it is considered a continuation by some scholars (e.g. G. Laplace). In this sense, the Epigravettian
Epigravettian
is simply the Gravettian
Gravettian
after ~21,000 BP, when the Solutrean
Solutrean
had replaced the Gravettian
Gravettian
in most of France and Spain. Its known range extends from southeast France to the western shores of the Volga River, Russia, with a large number of sites in Italy
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Afontova Gora
Afontova Gora
Afontova Gora
is a Late Upper Paleolithic
Upper Paleolithic
Siberian complex of archaeological sites located on the left bank of the Yenisei River near the city of Krasnoyarsk, Russia. Afontova Gora
Afontova Gora
has cultural and genetic links to the people from Mal'ta-Buret'. The complex was first excavated in 1884 by I. T
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