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Palais Du Petit-Luxembourg
The Petit Luxembourg
Petit Luxembourg
("Little Luxembourg") is a French hôtel particulier, currently the residence of the president of the French Senate. It is located at 17–17 bis, rue de Vaugirard, just west of the Senate's main building, the Palais du Luxembourg, in the 6th arrondissement of Paris. Originally built around 1550 to the designs of an unknown architect, it is especially noted for the surviving Rococo
Rococo
interiors designed in 1710–1713 by the French architect Germain Boffrand.[1] Further west, at 19 rue de Vaugirard, is the Musée du Luxembourg.[2]Contents1 Early history 2 Boffrand's alterations 3 Later history 4 Images of the Petit Luxembourg 5 References 6 External linksEarly history[edit] The original sixteenth-century building is of obscure origin,[1] but became known as the Hôtel de Luxembourg after its acquisition in 1570 by François de Luxembourg, who in 1581 became Duc de Piney, Pair de France
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Hôtel Particulier
An hôtel particulier (French pronunciation: ​[otɛl paʁtikylje]; "hôtel" being rendered in Middle English as "inn"—as only used now in Inns of Court—and "particulier" meaning "personal" or "private")[1] is a townhouse of a grand sort, comparable to the British townhouse
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Spandrels
A spandrel, less often spandril or splaundrel, is the space between two arches or between an arch and a rectangular enclosure.[1]Contents1 Meaning 2 Domes 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksMeaning[edit] There are four or five accepted and cognate meanings of spandrel in architectural and art history, mostly relating to the space between a curved figure and a rectangular boundary – such as the space between the curve of an arch and a rectilinear bounding moulding, or the wallspace bounded by adjacent arches in an arcade and the stringcourse or moulding above them, or the space between the central medallion of a carpet and its rectangular corners, or the space between the circular face of a clock and the corners of the square revealed by its hood
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Composite Order
The composite order is a mixed order, combining the volutes of the Ionic order
Ionic order
capital with the acanthus leaves of the Corinthian order.[1] In many versions the composite order volutes are larger, however, and there is generally some ornament placed centrally between the volutes. The column of the composite order is typically ten diameters high, though as with all the orders these details may be adjusted by the architect for particular buildings. The Composite order is essentially treated as Corinthian except for the capital, with no consistent differences to that above or below the capital. The composite order is not found in ancient Greek architecture and until the Renaissance
Renaissance
was not ranked as a separate order. Instead it was considered as an imperial Roman form of the Corinthian order
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Coffer
A coffer (or coffering) in architecture is a series of sunken panels in the shape of a square, rectangle, or octagon in a ceiling, soffit or vault.[1] A series of these sunken panels was often used as decoration for a ceiling or a vault, also called caissons ('boxes"), or lacunaria ("spaces, openings"),[2] so that a coffered ceiling can be called a lacunar ceiling: the strength of the structure is in the framework of the coffers.Contents1 History 2 Asian architecture 3 See also 4 Footnotes 5 External linksHistory[edit] The stone coffers of the ancient Greeks[3] and Romans[4] are the earliest surviving examples, but a seventh-century BC Etruscan chamber tomb in the necropolis of San Giuliano, which is cut in soft tufa-like stone reproduces a ceiling with beams and cross-beams lying on them, with flat panels filling the lacunae.[5] For centuries, it was thought that wooden coffers were first made by crossing the wooden beams of a ceiling in the
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Staircase
A stairway, staircase, stairwell, flight of stairs, or simply stairs is a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps. Stairs
Stairs
may be straight, round, or may consist of two or more straight pieces connected at angles. Special
Special
types of stairs include escalators and ladders
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Piano Nobile
The piano nobile (Italian, "noble floor" or "noble level", also sometimes referred to by the corresponding French term, bel étage) is the principal floor of a large house, usually built in one of the styles of Classical Renaissance architecture. This floor contains the principal reception and bedrooms of the house. The piano nobile is often the first (European terminology, second floor in US terms) or sometimes the second storey, located above a ground floor (often rusticated) containing minor rooms and service rooms. The reasons for this were so the rooms would have finer views, and more practically to avoid the dampness and odours of the street level. This is especially true in Venice
Venice
where the piano nobile of the many palazzi is especially obvious from the exterior by virtue of its larger windows and balconies and open loggias
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Balustrades
A baluster—also called spindle or stair stick[citation needed]—is a moulded shaft, square or of lathe-turned form, cut from a rectangular or square plank, one of various forms of spindle in woodwork, made of stone or wood and sometimes of metal,[1] standing on a unifying footing, and supporting the coping of a parapet or the handrail of a staircase.[2] Multiplied in this way, they form a balustrade.[3] Individually, a baluster shaft may describe the turned form taken by a brass or silver candlestick, an upright furniture support, or the stem of a brass chandelier, etc.A balustradeSwelling form of the half-open flower of Punica granatum, in Italian balaustraContents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Profiles and style changes 4 Modern materials used 5 Banisters 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksEtymology[edit] According to OED, "baluster" is derived through the French: balustre, from Italian: balaustro, from balaustra, "pomegranate flower" [from
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Wrought Iron
Wrought iron
Wrought iron
is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%). It is a semi-fused mass of iron with fibrous slag inclusions (up to 2% by weight), which gives it a "grain" resembling wood that is visible when it is etched or bent to the point of failure. Wrought iron
Wrought iron
is tough, malleable, ductile, corrosion-resistant and easily welded. Before the development of effective methods of steelmaking and the availability of large quantities of steel, wrought iron was the most common form of malleable iron. It was given the name wrought because it was hammered, rolled or otherwise worked while hot enough to expel molten slag. The modern functional equivalent of wrought iron is mild or low carbon steel
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Cornices
A cornice (from the Italian cornice meaning "ledge") is generally any horizontal decorative molding that crowns a building or furniture element – the cornice over a door or window, for instance, or the cornice around the top edge of a pedestal or along the top of an interior wall. A simple cornice may be formed just with a crown. The function of the projecting cornice of a building is to throw rainwater free of the building’s walls. In residential building practice, this function is handled by projecting gable ends, roof eaves, and gutters. However, house eaves may also be called "cornices" if they are finished with decorative molding
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Frieze
In architecture the frieze /friːz/ is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs. Even when neither columns nor pilasters are expressed, on an astylar wall it lies upon the architrave ('main beam') and is capped by the moldings of the cornice. A frieze can be found on many Greek and Roman buildings, the Parthenon Frieze
Parthenon Frieze
being the most famous, and perhaps the most elaborate. This style is typical for the Persians. In interiors, the frieze of a room is the section of wall above the picture rail and under the crown moldings or cornice. By extension, a frieze is a long stretch of painted, sculpted or even calligraphic decoration in such a position, normally above eye-level. Frieze decorations may depict scenes in a sequence of discrete panels
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Pierre Lepautre (1648–1716)
Pierre Lepautre or Le Pautre (1652 – 16 November 1716) was a French draughtsman, engraver and architect,[1] especially known as an ornemaniste, a prolific designer of ornament that presages the coming Rococo
Rococo
style.[2] He was the son of the designer and engraver Jean Lepautre and nephew of the architect Antoine Lepautre.[3] His appointment in 1699 as Dessinateur in the Bâtiments du Roi, the official design department of the French monarchy, headed by Jules Hardouin-Mansart and later Robert de Cotte
Robert de Cotte
in the declining years of Louis XIV, was signalled by the historian of the Rococo, Fiske Kimball, as a starting point in the genesis of the new style.[2] Notes[edit]^ Préaud 2008, pp. 16, 23; Souchal 1981, pp. 437–441 and the Family Tree in the end papers. Lepautre's year of birth is calculated from his stated age of 64 at the time of his death. ^ a b Kimball 1943, pp. 62–64, etc. ^ Souchal 1981, pp
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Arcade (architecture)
An arcade is a succession of arches, each counter-thrusting the next, supported by columns, piers, or a covered walkway enclosed by a line of such arches on one or both sides. In warmer or wet climates, exterior arcades provide shelter for pedestrians. The walkway may be lined with stores.[1] A blind arcade superimposes arcading against a solid wall.[2] Blind arcades are a feature of Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture
that influenced Gothic architecture. In the Gothic architectural tradition, the arcade can be located in the interior, in the lowest part of the wall of the nave, supporting the triforium and the clerestory in a cathedral,[3] or on the exterior, in which they are usually part of the walkways that surround the courtyard and cloisters. Many medieval arcades housed shops or stalls, either in the arcaded space itself, or set into the main wall behind
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J. H. Mansart
Jules Hardouin-Mansart
Jules Hardouin-Mansart
(French pronunciation: ​[ʒyl aʁdwɛ̃ mɑ̃saʁ]; 16 April 1646 – 11 May 1708) was a French architect whose work is generally considered to be the apex of French Baroque architecture, representing the power and grandeur of Louis XIV. Hardouin-Mansart was one of the most important European architects of the seventeenth century. Biography[edit] Born Jules Hardouin in Paris, he studied under his renowned great-uncle François Mansart, one of the originators of the classical tradition in French architecture; Hardouin inherited Mansart's collection of plans and drawings and adopted his well-regarded name. He also learned from Libéral Bruant, architect of the royal veteran's hospital in Paris known as Les Invalides. Hardouin-Mansart served as Louis XIV's chief architect, first enlarging the royal château of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, then at Versailles from 1675
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Vestibule (architecture)
A vestibule /ˈvɛstɪbjuːl/ is an anteroom (antechamber) or small foyer leading into a larger space,[1] such as a lobby, entrance hall, passage, etc., for the purpose of waiting, withholding the larger space view, reducing heat loss, providing space for outwear, etc. The term applies to structures in both modern and historical architecture since ancient times. In modern architecture, vestibule typically refers to a small room next to the outer door and connecting it with the interior of the building. In ancient Roman architecture, vestibule (Latin: vestibulum) referred to a partially enclosed area between the interior of the house and the street.[2]Contents1 Modern usage1.1 ATM vestibule 1.2 Railroad
Railroad
use2 Ancient usage 3 See also 4 ReferencesModern usage[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Grand Trianon
The Grand Trianon
Grand Trianon
(French pronunciation: ​[ɡʁɑ̃ tʁijanɔ̃]) is a château (palace) situated in the northwestern part of the Domain of Versailles. It was built at the request of King Louis XIV of France (r
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