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Padrón Real
The Padrón Real
Padrón Real
(Spanish pronunciation: [paˈðɾon reˈal], Royal Register), known after 2 August 1527 as the Padrón General (Spanish: [paˈðɾon xeneˈɾal], General Register), was the official and secret Spanish master map used as a template for the maps present on all Spanish ships during the 16th century.[1][2] It was kept in Seville, Spain
Seville, Spain
by the Casa de Contratación. Ship pilots were required to use a copy of the official government chart, or risk the penalty of a 50 doblas fine.[1] The map probably included a large-scale chart that hung on the wall of the old Alcazar in Seville.[1] Well known official cartographers and pilots who contributed to and used the map included Amerigo Vespucci, Diogo Ribeiro, Sebastian Cabot, Alonzo de Santa Cruz, and Juan Lopez de Velasco.Contents1 Origins 2 Mapmakers 3 Notes 4 ReferencesOrigins[edit]Diogo Ribeiro's Carta Universal (1529)
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Seville, Spain
Seville
Seville
(/səˈvɪl/; Spanish: Sevilla [seˈβiʎa], locally [seˈβi(ɟ)ʝa] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia
Andalusia
and the province of Seville, Spain. It is situated on the plain of the river Guadalquivir. The inhabitants of the city are known as sevillanos (feminine form: sevillanas) or hispalenses, after the Roman name of the city, Hispalis. Seville
Seville
has a municipal population of about 703,000 as of 2011[update], and a metropolitan population of about 1.5 million, making it the fourth-largest city in Spain
Spain
and the 30th most populous municipality in the European Union. Its Old Town, with an area of 4 square kilometres (2 sq mi), contains three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Alcázar palace complex, the Cathedral and the General Archive of the Indies
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Giovanni Salviati
Giovanni Salviati
Giovanni Salviati
(24 March 1490 – 28 October 1553) was a Florentine diplomat and cardinal.[1] He was papal legate in France, and conducted negotiations with the Emperor Charles V. Biography[edit] Salviati was born in Florence
Florence
to Jacopo Salviati, son of Giovanni Salviati and Maddalena Gondi, and Lucrezia di Lorenzo de' Medici, elder daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici. Pope Leo X, who raised him to the cardinalate in 1517, was Lorenzo's son, and therefore Giovanni's uncle. His brother Bernardo Salviati
Bernardo Salviati
and nephew Anton Maria Salviati also became cardinals. He was also Cousin of Catherine de' Medici
Catherine de' Medici
from whom he derived patronage. He held many posts. He was protonotary apostolic, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
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Imago Mundi
Imago Mundi is a biannual peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1935 by Leo Bagrow.[1][2] It covers the history of early maps, cartography, and map-related ideas. Articles are in English and have abstracts in French, German, Spanish, and English. Each volume also contains three reference sections (book reviews, bibliography, and chronicle) that provide a summary of current developments in the field. References[edit]^ Skelton, R. A. (1959). "Leo Bagrow: Historian of Cartography
Cartography
and Founder of Imago Mundi, 1881-1957". Imago Mundi. 14: 4–5, 7–12. doi:10.1080/03085695908592149
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Carta Marina
Carta marina
Carta marina
et descriptio septentrionalium terrarum ( Latin
Latin
for Marine map and description of the Northern lands[1]; commonly abbreviated Carta marina) is the first map of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
to give details and place names, created by Swedish ecclesiastic Olaus Magnus
Olaus Magnus
and initially published in 1539. Only two earlier maps of the Nordic countries are known, those of Jacob Ziegler (Strasbourg, 1532) and Claudius Clavus
Claudius Clavus
(15th century). The map is centered on Scandia, which is shown in the largest size text on the map and placed on the middle of Sweden. The map covers the Nordic lands of "Svecia" (Svealand), "Gothia" (Götaland), "Norvegia" (Norway), Dania (Denmark), Islandia (Iceland), Finlandia (Finland), and Livonia
Livonia
( Estonia
Estonia
and Latvia)
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Pedro De Medina
Pedro de Medina
Pedro de Medina
(1493 - Seville, 1567) was a Spanish cartographer and author of navigational texts
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Lisbon
Lisbon
Lisbon
(/ˈlɪzbən/; Portuguese: Lisboa, IPA: [liʒˈboɐ] ( listen))[3] is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700[4] within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km².[5] Its urban area extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.7 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the European Union.[1] About 3 million people live in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area
Lisbon Metropolitan Area
(which represents approximately 27% of the country's population).[2] It is continental Europe's westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon
Lisbon
lies in the western Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
on the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and the River Tagus
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Portolan
Portolan or portulan charts are navigational maps based on compass directions and estimated distances observed by the pilots at sea. They were first made in the 13th century in Italy, and later in Spain
Spain
and Portugal, with later 15th and 16th century charts noted for their cartographic accuracy.[1] With the advent of widespread competition among seagoing nations during the Age of Discovery, Portugal
Portugal
and Spain considered such maps to be state secrets. The English and Dutch, relative newcomers, found the description of Atlantic and Indian coastlines extremely valuable for their raiding, and later trading, ships
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Rhumb
In navigation, a rhumb line, rhumb, or loxodrome is an arc crossing all meridians of longitude at the same angle, that is, a path with constant bearing as measured relative to true or magnetic north.Contents1 Introduction 2 Etymology and historical description 3 Mathematical description 4 Connection to the Mercator projection 5 Application 6 Generalizations6.1 On the Riemann sphere 6.2 Spheroid7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksIntroduction[edit] The effect of following a rhumb line course on the surface of a globe was first discussed by the Portuguese mathematician Pedro Nunes
Pedro Nunes
in 1537, in his Treatise in Defense of the Marine Chart, with further mathematical development by Thomas Harriot
Thomas Harriot
in the 1590s. A rhumb line can be contrasted with a great circle, which is the path of shortest distance between two points on the surface of a sphere
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Vatican Library
Outline, Index Vatican City
Vatican City
portalv t eThe Vatican Apostolic Library
Library
(Latin: Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the Vatican Library
Library
or simply the Vat,[1] is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City. Formally established in 1475, although it is much older, it is one of the oldest libraries in the world and contains one of the most significant collections of historical texts. It has 75,000 codices from throughout history,[2] as well as 1.1 million printed books, which include some 8,500 incunabula. The Vatican Library
Library
is a research library for history, law, philosophy, science and theology
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Baldassare Castiglione
Baldassare Castiglione
Baldassare Castiglione
(Italian: [baldasˈsaːre kastiʎˈʎoːne]; December 6, 1478 – February 2, 1529),[1] count of Casatico, was an Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier and a prominent Renaissance
Renaissance
author,[2] who is probably most famous for his authorship of The Book of the Courtier. The work was an example of a courtesy book, dealing with questions of the etiquette and morality of the courtier, and was very influential in 16th century European court circles.[3]Contents1 Biography 2 The Book of the Courtier 3 The Fortunes of the Courtier 4 Minor works 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksBiography[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Mantua
Mantua
Mantua
(Italian: Mantova [ˈmantova] ( listen); Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name. In 2016, Mantua
Mantua
became Italian Capital of Culture. In 2017, Mantua will also be European Capital of Gastronomy, included in the Eastern Lombardy
Lombardy
District (together with the cities of Bergamo, Brescia, and Cremona). In 2007, Mantua's centro storico (old town) and Sabbioneta
Sabbioneta
were declared by UNESCO
UNESCO
to be a World Heritage Site. Mantua's historic power and influence under the Gonzaga family
Gonzaga family
has made it one of the main artistic, cultural, and especially musical hubs of Northern Italy and the country as a whole
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Nuncio
Nuncio
Nuncio
(officially known as an Apostolic nuncio and also known as a papal nuncio) is the title for an ecclesiastical diplomat, being an envoy or permanent diplomatic representative of the Holy See
Holy See
to a state or international organization. A nuncio is appointed by and represents the Holy See, and is the head of the diplomatic mission, called an Apostolic Nunciature, which is the equivalent of an embassy. The Holy See
Holy See
is legally distinct from the Vatican City
Vatican City
or the Catholic Church. A nuncio is usually an archbishop. A papal nuncio is generally equivalent in rank to that of ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary, although in Catholic countries
Catholic countries
the nuncio often ranks above ambassadors in diplomatic protocol. A nuncio performs the same functions as an ambassador and has the same diplomatic privileges
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Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V (Spanish: Carlos; German: Karl; Italian: Carlo; Latin: Carolus; Dutch: Karel; French: Charles, [a] 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
as Charles I from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
as Charles V from 1519, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy
Duchy of Burgundy
from 1506. He voluntarily stepped down from these and other positions by a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556. Through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western, central, and southern Europe, and the Spanish viceroyalties in the Americas and Asia
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Planisphere
In astronomy, a planisphere is a star chart analog computing instrument in the form of two adjustable disks that rotate on a common pivot. It can be adjusted to display the visible stars for any time and date. It is an instrument to assist in learning how to recognize stars and constellations. The astrolabe, an instrument that has its origins in Hellenistic astronomy, is a predecessor of the modern planisphere. The term planisphere contrasts with armillary sphere, where the celestial sphere is represented by a three-dimensional framework of rings.Contents1 Description 2 History 3 The star chart 4 The upper disc 5 Coordinates 6 References 7 External linksDescription[edit] A planisphere consists of a circular star chart attached at its center to an opaque circular overlay that has a clear elliptical window or hole so that only a portion of the sky map will be visible in the window or hole area at any given time
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