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Pacific Herring
The Pacific herring, Clupea
Clupea
pallasii, is a species of the herring family associated with the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
environment of North America and northeast Asia. It is a silvery fish with unspined fins and a deeply forked caudal fin. The distribution is widely along the California
California
coast from Baja California
California
north to Alaska
Alaska
and the Bering Sea; in Asia the distribution is south to Japan. Clupea
Clupea
pallasii is considered a keystone species because of its very high productivity and interactions with a large number of predators and prey. Pacific herring spawn in variable seasons, but often in the early part of the year in intertidal and sub-tidal environments, commonly on eelgrass, seaweed[1] or other submerged vegetation; however, they do not die after spawning, but can breed in successive years
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Jaw
The jaw is any opposable articulated structure at the entrance of the mouth, typically used for grasping and manipulating food. The term jaws is also broadly applied to the whole of the structures constituting the vault of the mouth and serving to open and close it and is part of the body plan of most animals.Contents1 Arthropods 2 Vertebrates2.1 Fish 2.2 Amphibians, reptiles, and birds 2.3 Mammals3 Sea urchins 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksArthropods[edit] Further information: Mandible (arthropod mouthpart)
Mandible (arthropod mouthpart)
and Mandible (insect mouthpart)The mandibles of a bull antIn arthropods, the jaws are chitinous and oppose laterally, and may consist of mandibles or chelicerae. These jaws are often composed of numerous mouthparts. Their function is fundamentally for food acquisition, conveyance to the mouth, and/or initial processing (mastication or chewing)
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Sublittoral Zone
The neritic zone is the relatively shallow part of the ocean above the drop-off of the continental shelf, approximately 200 meters (660 ft) in depth.[1][2] From the point of view of marine biology it forms a relatively stable and well-illuminated environment for marine life, from plankton up to large fish and corals, while physical oceanography sees it as where the oceanic system interacts with the coast.Contents1 Definition (marine biology), context, extra terminology 2 Physical characteristics 3 Life forms 4 Definition (physical oceanography) 5 See also 6 ReferencesDefinition (marine biology), context, extra terminology[edit] In marine biology, the neritic zone, also called coastal waters, the coastal ocean or the sublittoral zone,[3] refers to that zone of the ocean where sunlight reaches the ocean floor, that is, where the water is never so deep as to take it out of the photic zone.[? or entire top-layer clarification needed] It extends from the low tide m
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Zostera
Zostera
Zostera
is a small genus of widely distributed seagrasses, commonly called marine eelgrass or simply eelgrass. The genus Zostera
Zostera
contains 15 species.Contents1 Ecology 2 Distribution 3 Uses 4 Species 5 References 6 External linksEcology[edit] Zostera marina
Zostera marina
is found on sandy substrates or in estuaries, usually submerged or partially floating. Most Zostera
Zostera
are perennial. They have long, bright green, ribbon-like leaves, the width of which are about 1 centimetre (0.4 in). Short stems grow up from extensive, white branching rhizomes
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Fishery
Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.[1] According to the FAO, a fishery is typically defined in terms of the "people involved, species or type of fish, area of water or seabed, method of fishing, class of boats, purpose of the activities or a combination of the foregoing features".[2] The definition often includes a combination of fish and fishers in a region, the latter fishing for similar species with similar gear types.[3] A fishery may involve the capture of wild fish or raising fish through fish farming or aquaculture.[2][4] Directly or indirectly, the livelihood of over 500 million people in developing countries depends on fisheries and aquaculture
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Germans
Germans
Germans
(German: Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe,[24] who share a common German ancestry, culture and history
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Natural History
Natural history
Natural history
is the research and study of organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study. A person who studies natural history is known as a naturalist or natural historian. Natural history encompasses scientific research but is not limited to it, with articles nowadays more often published in science magazines than in academic journals.[1] Grouped among the natural sciences, natural history is the systematic study of any category of natural objects or organisms.[2] That is a very broad designation in a world filled with many narrowly focused disciplines
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Explorer
Exploration
Exploration
is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources. Exploration
Exploration
occurs in all non-sessile animal species, including humans. In human history, its most dramatic rise was during the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
when European explorers sailed and charted much of the rest of the world for a variety of reasons. Since then, major explorations after the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
have occurred for reasons mostly aimed at information discovery. In scientific research, exploration is one of three purposes of empirical research (the other two being description and explanation). The term is often used metaphorically
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Guanine
Guanine
Guanine
(/ˈɡwɑːnɪn/; or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA
DNA
and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA). In DNA, guanine is paired with cytosine. The guanine nucleoside is called guanosine. With the formula C5H5N5O, guanine is a derivative of purine, consisting of a fused pyrimidine-imidazole ring system with conjugated double bonds. Being unsaturated, the bicyclic molecule is planar.Contents1 Properties 2 History 3 Syntheses 4 Other occurrences/ biological uses 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksProperties[edit] Guanine, along with adenine and cytosine, is present in both DNA
DNA
and RNA, whereas thymine is usually seen only in DNA, and uracil only in RNA. Guanine
Guanine
has two tautomeric forms, the major keto form (see figures) and rare enol form. It binds to cytosine through three hydrogen bonds
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Camouflage
Camouflage
Camouflage
is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis). Examples include the leopard's spotted coat, the battledress of a modern soldier, and the leaf-mimic katydid's wings. A third approach, motion dazzle, confuses the observer with a conspicuous pattern, making the object visible but momentarily harder to locate. The majority of camouflage methods aim for crypsis, often through a general resemblance to the background, high contrast disruptive coloration, eliminating shadow, and countershading. In the open ocean, where there is no background, the principal methods of camouflage are transparency, silvering, and countershading, while the ability to produce light is among other things used for counter-illumination on the undersides of cephalopods such as squid
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Gill
A gill (/ɡɪl/ ( listen)) is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide. The gills of some species, such as hermit crabs, have adapted to allow respiration on land provided they are kept moist. The microscopic structure of a gill presents a large surface area to the external environment. Branchia (pl. branchiae) is the zoologists' name for gills. With the exception of some aquatic insects, the filaments and lamellae (folds) contain blood or coelomic fluid, from which gases are exchanged through the thin walls. The blood carries oxygen to other parts of the body. Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
passes from the blood through the thin gill tissue into the water. Gills or gill-like organs, located in different parts of the body, are found in various groups of aquatic animals, including mollusks, crustaceans, insects, fish, and amphibians
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Vomer
The vomer (/ˈvoʊmər/[1][2]) is one of the unpaired facial bones of the skull. It is located in the midsagittal line, and articulates with the sphenoid, the ethmoid, the left and right palatine bones, and the left and right maxillary bones
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Spawn (biology)
Spawn is the eggs and sperm released or deposited into water by aquatic animals. As a verb, to spawn refers to the process of releasing the eggs and sperm, and the act of both sexes is called spawning
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Retina
The retina is the third and inner coat of the eye which is a light-sensitive layer of tissue. The optics of the eye create an image of the visual world on the retina (through the cornea and lens), which serves much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical events that ultimately trigger nerve impulses. These are sent to various visual centres of the brain through the fibres of the optic nerve
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Filter Feeding
Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure. Some animals that use this method of feeding are clams, krill, sponges, baleen whales, and many fish (including some sharks). Some birds, such as flamingos and certain species of duck, are also filter feeders. Filter feeders can play an important role in clarifying water, and are therefore considered ecosystem engineers.Contents1 Fish 2 Crustaceans 3 Baleen
Baleen
whales 4 Bivalves 5 Sponges 6 Cnidarians 7 Flamingos 8 Pterosaurs 9 Marine reptiles 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External linksFish[edit] See also: Forage fish Most forage fish are filter feeders
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