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POL Chojnice 1657
Chojnice
Chojnice
([xɔjˈɲit͡sɛ] (listen); Kashubian/Pomeranian: Chònice; German: Konitz) is a town in northern Poland
Poland
with approximately 40,447[1] inhabitants (2011), near the Tuchola Forest
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List Of Sovereign States
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty. Membership within the United Nations
United Nations
system divides the 206 listed states into three categories: 193 member states,[1] 2 observer states, and 11 other states. The sovereignty dispute column indicates states whose sovereignty is undisputed (191 states) and states whose sovereignty is disputed (15 states, out of which there are 5 member states, 1 observer state and 9 other states). Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below
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Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War
The Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War
Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War
or Great War occurred between 1409 and 1411, pitting the allied Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania against the Teutonic Knights. Inspired by the local Samogitian uprising, the war began by Teutonic invasion of Poland in August 1409. As neither side was ready for a full-scale war, Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia
Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia
brokered a nine-month truce. After the truce expired in June 1410, the military-religious monks were decisively defeated in the Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
(Tannenberg), one of the largest battles in medieval Europe. Most of the Teutonic leadership was killed or taken prisoner. While defeated, the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
withstood the siege on their capital in Marienburg (Malbork) and suffered only minimal territorial losses in the Peace of Thorn (1411)
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Noteć
Noteć
Noteć
(German: Netze, Latin: Natissis) is a river in central Poland with a length of 388 km (241 mi) (7th longest) and a basin area of 17,300 km2 (6,700 sq mi). It is the largest tributary of the Warta
Warta
river and lies completely within Poland.Contents1 Course 2 History 3 Towns 4 See alsoCourse[edit] River
River
mouth at SantokIt rises in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship
Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship
and flows through Lake Gopło
Gopło
and the town of Inowrocław. It reaches the voivodeship of Greater Poland
Poland
in the historic Pałuki
Pałuki
region south of Piła. Further down in Lubusz Voivodeship, it empties into the Warta
Warta
at Santok
Santok
near Gorzów Wielkopolski
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Brda (river)
The Brda (Polish pronunciation: [brda];[1] German: Brahe) is a river in northwestern Poland, a tributary of the Vistula. It is the country's 15th longest river, with a total length of 238 km and a catchment area (all within Poland) of 4,627 km².Contents1 Navigation 2 Towns and townships on Brda 3 See also 4 ReferencesNavigation[edit] The Brda is part of the Odra- Vistula
Vistula
waterway, connecting these two rivers via the Warta and Noteć
Noteć
Rivers and the Bydgoszcz
Bydgoszcz
Canal since end of the 18th century. The waterway is navigable for modest barges (of CEMT Class II) but with a limited draught. With the expansion of the European Union
European Union
to the East, the waterway could play an important role
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Baltic Sea
The Baltic Sea
Sea
is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden, northeast Germany, Poland, Russia
Russia
and the North and Central European Plain. The sea stretches from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 10°E to 30°E longitude. A mediterranean sea of the Atlantic, with limited water exchange between the two bodies, the Baltic Sea
Sea
drains through the Danish islands into the Kattegat
Kattegat
by way of the straits of Øresund, the Great Belt, and the Little Belt
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Teutonic Knights
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem[2] (official names: Latin: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, German: Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order
Catholic religious order
founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
was formed to aid Christians
Christians
on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land
Holy Land
and to establish hospitals
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State Of The Teutonic Order
The State of the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
(German: Staat des Deutschen Ordens; Latin: Civitas Ordinis Theutonici), also called Deutschordensstaat (pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃ ɔɐdənsˌʃtaːt]) or Ordensstaat[2] (pronounced [ˈɔɐdənsˌʃtaːt]) in German, was a crusader state formed by the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
or Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
during the 13th century Northern Crusades
Northern Crusades
along the Baltic Sea. The state was based in Prussia
Prussia
after the Order's conquest of the Pagan Old Prussians
Old Prussians
which began in 1230. It expanded to include at various times Courland, Gotland, Livonia, Neumark, Pomerelia
Pomerelia
and Samogitia. Its territory was in the modern countries of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Russia
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Winrich Von Kniprode
Winrich von Kniprode
Winrich von Kniprode
was the 22nd Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. He was the longest serving Grand Master, holding the position for 31 years (1351–1382). Von Kniprode was born in 1310 in Monheim am Rhein
Monheim am Rhein
near Cologne. He served as the Komtur
Komtur
of Danzig (1338–1341) and Balga
Balga
(1341–1343). In 1341 he was promoted to the Grand Marshal. Von Kniprode was elected Grand Master in 1351. He constantly fought with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
to gain access to Livonia. He achieved a victory in the Battle of Rudau. Von Kniprode died in 1382 and was buried in Marienburg Castle in the mausoleum under the Chapel of St
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Augustinians
Catholicism portal Philosophy portalThe term Augustinians, named after Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
(354–430), applies to two distinct types of Catholic religious orders and some Anglican religious orders. Within Anglicanism the Rule of St. Augustine is followed only by women, who form several different communities of Augustinian nuns
Augustinian nuns
in the Anglican Communion. Within Roman Catholicism Augustinians
Augustinians
may be members of either one of two separate and distinct types of Order:Several mendicant Orders of friars, who lived a mixed religious life of contemplation and apostolic ministry and follow the Rule of St. Augustine, a brief document providing guidelines for living in a religious community. The largest and most familiar, originally known as the Hermits of St
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Stargard Szczeciński
Stargard
Stargard
[ˈstarɡart] ( listen) (German: Stargard
Stargard
in Pommern; Kashubian: Stôrgard) is a city in northwestern Poland, with a population of 71,017 (2005). Situated on the Ina River
Ina River
it is the capital of Stargard County
Stargard County
and since 1999 has been in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship; prior to that it was in the Szczecin Voivodeship (1975–1998). Before World War II
World War II
the town was in Prussia, Germany. The city's name is of Pomeranian (Kashubian) origin and stands for old (stari) town/city (gard or gôrd).[1] It's one of the biggest towns of Szczecin
Szczecin
agglomeration. Stargard
Stargard
is a major railroad junction, where the southwards connection from Szczecin splits into two directions - one towards Poznań
Poznań
and the other towards Gdańsk
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Duchy Of Pomerania
The Duchy of Pomerania
Pomerania
(German: Herzogtum Pommern, Polish: Księstwo Pomorskie, 12th century – 1637) was a duchy in Pomerania
Pomerania
on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, ruled by dukes of the House of Pomerania
Pomerania
(Griffins). The duchy originated from the realm of Wartislaw I, a Slavic Pomeranian duke, and was extended by the Lands of Schlawe and Stolp
Lands of Schlawe and Stolp
in 1317, the Principality of Rügen
Principality of Rügen
in 1325, and the Lauenburg
Lauenburg
and Bütow Land in 1455
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Casimir IV Jagiellon
Casimir IV KG (Polish: Kazimierz IV Andrzej Jagiellończyk [kaˈʑimi̯ɛʒ jaɡi̯ɛlˈlɔɲt͡ʃɨk] ( listen); Lithuanian: Kazimieras Jogailaitis [kaˈziˈmieˈrʲaːs joːˈgaːiˈlʲaiˈtisʲ] ( listen); 30 November 1427 – 7 June 1492[1]) of the Jagiellonian dynasty
Jagiellonian dynasty
was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440 and King of Poland
King of Poland
from 1447, until his death. He was one of the most active Polish rulers, under whom Poland, by defeating the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
in the Thirteen Years' War recovered Pomerania, and the Jagiellonian dynasty
Jagiellonian dynasty
became one of the leading royal houses in Europe
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Łeba (river)
The Łeba
Łeba
(German: Leba), a river in Middle Pomerania
Middle Pomerania
(Poland), originates near the village of Borzestowo
Borzestowo
west of Kartuzy, passes through Łebsko Lake
Łebsko Lake
and empties into the Baltic Sea. It is 117 km long with a basin area of 1,801 km². The town of Lębork
Lębork
lies on the river Łeba, while the town of Łeba on the Baltic coast was originally located west of the present-day mouth of the river. In the 12th century the lower Łeba
Łeba
marked the eastern border of the Land of Słupsk-Sławno, ruled by the Pomeranian (Griffin) duke Ratibor I and his descendants, while the territory around the castellany of Białogarda
Białogarda
was a possession of the Pomerelian duke Sobieslaw I of the Samborides
Samborides
dynasty
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Battle Of Chojnice (1454)
The Battle of Chojnice
Chojnice
(Battle of Konitz) occurred on September 18, 1454 near the town of Chojnice, between Poland
Poland
and the Teutonic Knights during the Thirteen Years' War. The battle was won by the Teutonic Knights.Contents1 Background 2 Battle 3 Aftermath 4 BibliographyBackground[edit] The Teutonic army had around 9,000 cavalry and 6,000 infantry under Bernhard von Zinnenberg. The Polish army had 16,000 cavalry, a few thousand servants (who could and usually were used in battles), a few hundred infantry plus 500 mercenaries and burghers from Gdańsk
Gdańsk
and 2,000 mercenaries hired by the Prussian Confederacy, all under the command of King Casimir IV, advised by chancellor Jan Koniecpolski and Piotr from Szczekociny. The Polish commanders were counting on the battle being won by the Polish heavy cavalry, not caring much about either artillery or infantry
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Thirteen Years' War (1454–66)
The Thirteen Years' War (German: Dreizehnjähriger Krieg; Polish: wojna trzynastoletnia), also called the War of the Cities, was a conflict fought in 1454–66 between the Prussian Confederation, allied with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, and the State of the Teutonic Order. The war began as an uprising by Prussian cities and local nobility to win independence from the Teutonic Knights. In 1454 Casimir IV married Elisabeth of Habsburg and the Prussian Confederation
Prussian Confederation
asked Poland's King Casimir IV Jagiellon
Casimir IV Jagiellon
for help and offered to accept the king as protector instead of the Teutonic Order. When the King assented, war broke out supporters of the Prussian Confederation,backed by Poland and backers of government by the Teutonic Knights. The Thirteen Years' War ended in the victory of the Prussian Confederation and Poland and in the Second Peace of Thorn (1466)
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