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PDP-10
The PDP-10
PDP-10
is a mainframe computer family[1] manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1966[2] into the 1980s. Later models were marketed under the DECsystem-10 name, especially when the TOPS-10 operating system became widely used. The PDP-10
PDP-10
architecture is almost identical to the earlier PDP-6 architecture, sharing the same 36-bit word length and slightly extending the instruction set (but with improved hardware implementation)
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Superminicomputer
A superminicomputer, or supermini, was “a minicomputer with high performance compared to ordinary minicomputers.” The term was an invention used from the mid-1970s[1] mainly to distinguish the emerging 32-bit
32-bit
minis from the classical 16-bit minicomputers.[2] The term is now largely obsolete but still remains of interest for students/researchers of computer history. Significant superminis[edit]
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CPU Cache
A CPU cache[1] is a hardware cache used by the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer to reduce the average cost (time or energy) to access data from the main memory. A cache is a smaller, faster memory, closer to a processor core, which stores copies of the data from frequently used main memory locations. Most CPUs have different independent caches, including instruction and data caches, where the data cache is usually organized as a hierarchy of more cache levels (L1, L2, etc.). All modern (fast) CPUs (with few specialized exceptions[2]) have multiple levels of CPU caches. The first CPUs that used a cache had only one level of cache; unlike later level 1 caches, it was not split into L1d (for data) and L1i (for instructions). Almost all current CPUs with caches have a split L1 cache. They also have L2 caches and, for larger processors, L3 caches as well
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Transistor-transistor Logic
Transistor–transistor logic
Transistor–transistor logic
(TTL) is a class of digital circuits built from bipolar junction transistors. Its name signifies that transistors perform both the logic function (the first "transistor") and the amplifying function (the second "transistor"); it is the same naming convention used in resistor–transistor logic (RTL) and diode–transistor logic (DTL). TTL integrated circuits (ICs) were widely used in applications such as computers, industrial controls, test equipment and instrumentation, consumer electronics, and synthesizers. Sometimes TTL-compatible logic levels are not associated directly with TTL integrated circuits, for example as a label on the inputs and outputs of electronic instruments.[1] After their introduction in integrated circuit form in 1963 by Sylvania, TTL integrated circuits were manufactured by several semiconductor companies
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Magnetic-core Memory
Magnetic-core memory
Magnetic-core memory
was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975. Such memory is often just called core memory, or, informally, core. Core uses tiny magnetic toroids (rings), the cores, through which wires are threaded to write and read information. Each core represents one bit of information. The cores can be magnetized in two different ways (clockwise or counterclockwise) and the bit stored in a core is zero or one depending on that core's magnetization direction. The wires are arranged to allow for an individual core to be set to either a one or a zero and for its magnetization to be changed by sending appropriate electric current pulses through selected wires. The process of reading the core causes the core to be reset to a zero, thus erasing it. This is called destructive readout
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Transistor
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld patented a field-effect transistor in 1926[1] but it was not possible to actually construct a working device at that time
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Bit-slice
Bit slicing is a technique for constructing a processor from modules of processors of smaller bit width, for the purpose of increasing the word length; in theory to make an arbitrary n-bit CPU. Each of these component modules processes one bit field or "slice" of an operand. The grouped processing components would then have the capability to process the chosen full word-length of a particular software design. Bit slicing more or less died out due to the advent of the microprocessor. Recently it's been used in ALUs for quantum computers, and has been used as a software technique (e.g
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Unibus
The Unibus
Unibus
was the earliest of several computer bus and backplane designs used with PDP-11
PDP-11
and early VAX
VAX
systems manufactured by the Digital Equipment Corporation
Digital Equipment Corporation
(DEC) of Maynard, Massachusetts. The Unibus
Unibus
was developed around 1969 by Gordon Bell
Gordon Bell
and student Harold McFarland while at Carnegie Mellon University.[1] Technical specifications[edit]A Unibus
Unibus
connector and extension cableThe Unibus
Unibus
consists of 72 signals, usually connected via two 36-way edge connectors on each printed circuit board. When not counting the power and ground lines, it is usually referred to as a 56-line bus. It can exist within a backplane or on a cable
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Distributed Computing
Distributed computing
Distributed computing
is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems. A distributed system is a model in which components located on networked computers communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages.[1] The components interact with each other in order to achieve a common goal
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Binary Prefix
A binary prefix is a unit prefix for multiples of units in data processing, data transmission, and digital information, notably the bit and the byte, to indicate multiplication by a power of 2. The computer industry has historically used the units kilobyte, megabyte, and gigabyte, and the corresponding symbols KB, MB, and GB, in at least two slightly different measurement systems. In citations of main memory (RAM) capacity, gigabyte customarily means 7009107374182400000♠1073741824 bytes. As this is a power of 1024, and 1024 is a power of two (210), this usage is referred to as a binary measurement. In most other contexts, the industry uses the multipliers kilo, mega, giga, etc., in a manner consistent with their meaning in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI), namely as powers of 1000
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Kilobyte
The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. The International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) defines the prefix kilo as 1000 (103); per this definition, one kilobyte is 1000 bytes.[1] The internationally recommended unit symbol for the kilobyte is kB.[1] In some areas of information technology, particularly in reference to digital memory capacity, kilobyte instead denotes 1024 (210) bytes. This arises from the powers-of-two sizing common to memory circuit design. In this context, the symbols K and KB are often used.Contents1 Definitions and usage1.1 1000 bytes 1.2 1024 bytes1.2.1 Kibibyte2 Examples 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesDefinitions and usage[edit] 1000 bytes[edit] In the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) the prefix kilo means 1000 (103); therefore, one kilobyte is 1000 bytes
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Carnegie Mellon University
Coordinates: 40°26′36″N 79°56′37″W / 40.443322°N 79.943583°W / 40.443322; -79.943583 Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University
(Carnegie Mellon or CMU /ˈkɑːrnɪɡi ˈmɛlən/ or /kɑːrˈneɪɡi ˈmɛlən/) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1900 by Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie
as the Carnegie Technical Schools, the university became the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1912 and began granting four-year degrees. In 1967, the Carnegie Institute of Technology merged with the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research
Mellon Institute of Industrial Research
to form Carnegie Mellon University. The university's 140-acre (57 ha) main campus is 3 miles (5 km) from Downtown Pittsburgh
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ETH
Eth
Eth
(/ɛð/, uppercase: Ð, lowercase: ð; also spelled edh or eð) is a letter used in Old English, Middle English, Icelandic, Faroese (in which it is called edd), and Elfdalian. It was also used in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
but was subsequently replaced with dh and later d. It is often transliterated as d (and d- is rarely used as a mnemonic).[1] The lowercase version has been adopted to represent a voiced dental fricative in the International Phonetic Alphabet. In Old English, ð (called ðæt by the Anglo-Saxons[2]) was used interchangeably with þ to represent the Old English
Old English
dental fricative phoneme /θ/, which exists in modern English phonology as the voiced and voiceless dental fricatives now spelled 'th'. Unlike the runic letter þ, ð is a modified Roman letter. ð was not found in the earliest records of Old English
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Paging
In computer operating systems, paging is a memory management scheme by which a computer stores and retrieves data from secondary storage[a] for use in main memory.[1] In this scheme, the operating system retrieves data from secondary storage in same-size blocks called pages
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Memory Management
Memory management
Memory management
is a form of resource management applied to computer memory. The essential requirement of memory management is to provide ways to dynamically allocate portions of memory to programs at their request, and free it for reuse when no longer needed. This is critical to any advanced computer system where more than a single process might be underway at any time.[1] Several methods have been devised that increase the effectiveness of memory management. Virtual memory
Virtual memory
systems separate the memory addresses used by a process from actual physical addresses, allowing separation of processes and increasing the size of the virtual address space beyond the available amount of RAM using paging or swapping to secondary storage
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Stanford University
Stanford University
University
(officially Leland Stanford
Leland Stanford
Junior University,[11] colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California. Because of its academic strength, wealth, and proximity to Silicon Valley, Stanford is often cited as one of the world's most prestigious universities.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19] The university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford
Jane Stanford
in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford
Leland Stanford
Jr., who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was a former Governor of California
California
and U.S. Senator; he made his fortune as a railroad tycoon
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