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PCGG
PCGG
PCGG
(also known as the DUTCH CONCERTS station) was a radio station located at The Hague
The Hague
in the Netherlands
Netherlands
, which began broadcasting a regular schedule of entertainment programmes on 6 November 1919. The station was established by engineer Hans Idzerda, and is believed to have been Europe's first sustained broadcasting station, as well as one of the first stations in the world to transmit entertainment intended for a general audience. PCGG's schedule generally featured one or two evening programmes per week. Although located on the west coast of Holland, the station had a large audience across the English Channel in Great Britain. However, Idzerda ran into financial difficulties, and PCGG's licence was revoked on 11 November 1924, one month before his company, Nederlandsche Radio-Industrie, shut down due to bankruptcy
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Communications Satellite
A COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder ; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth. Communications satellites are used for television, telephone, radio, internet, and military applications. There are over 2,000 communications satellites in Earth’s orbit, used by both private and government organizations. Wireless communication uses electromagnetic waves to carry signals. These waves require line-of-sight, and are thus obstructed by the curvature of the Earth. The purpose of communications satellites is to relay the signal around the curve of the Earth allowing communication between widely separated points. Communications satellites use a wide range of radio and microwave frequencies
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Radiotelephone
A RADIOTELEPHONE (or RADIOPHONE) is a communications system for transmission of speech over radio . Radiotelephone systems are not necessarily interconnected with the public "land line" telephone network. "Radiotelephony" means transmission of sound (audio ) by radio, in contrast to radiotelegraphy (transmission of telegraph signals) or video transmission. Where a two-way radio system is arranged for speaking and listening at a mobile station, and where it can be interconnected to the public switched telephone system, the system can provide mobile telephone service. CONTENTS* 1 Design * 1.1 Mode of emission * 1.2 Modes of operation * 2 Features * 2.1 Privacy and selective calling * 3 Uses * 3.1 Conventional telephone use * 3.2 Marine use * 4 Regulations * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links DESIGNMODE OF EMISSIONThe word phone has a long precedent beginning with early US wireless voice systems
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Semaphore
FLAG SEMAPHORE (from the Greek σῆμα, sema, meaning sign and φέρω, phero, meaning to bear; altogether the sign-bearer) is the telegraphy system conveying information at a distance by means of visual signals with hand-held flags, rods, disks, paddles, or occasionally bare or gloved hands. Information is encoded by the position of the flags; it is read when the flag is in a fixed position. Semaphores were adopted and widely used (with hand-held flags replacing the mechanical arms of shutter semaphores ) in the maritime world in the 19th century. It is still used during underway replenishment at sea and is acceptable for emergency communication in daylight or, using lighted wands instead of flags, at night
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Smartphone
A SMARTPHONE is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice , SMS
SMS
, and Internet
Internet
data communication; most if not all smartphones also support Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
. Smartphones are typically pocket-sized, as opposed to tablets , which are much larger. They are able to run a variety of software components , known as “apps ”. Most basic apps (e.g. event calendar, camera, web browser) come pre-installed with the system, while others are available for download from places like the Google Play Store or Apple App Store . Apps can receive bug fixes and gain additional functionality through software updates ; similarly, operating systems are able to update
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Smoke Signal
The SMOKE SIGNAL is one of the oldest forms of long-distance communication. It is a form of visual communication used over long distance. In general smoke signals are used to transmit news, signal danger, or gather people to a common area. CONTENTS * 1 History and usage * 2 Examples * 2.1 Native Americans * 2.1.1 Yámana * 2.2 Noon Gun * 2.3 Aboriginal Australians
Aboriginal Australians
* 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY AND USAGEIn ancient China , soldiers stationed along the Great Wall would alert each other of impending enemy attack by signaling from tower to tower. In this way, they were able to transmit a message as far away as 750 kilometres (470 mi) in just a few hours. Abuse of the smoke signal is known to have contributed to the fall of the Western Zhou Dynasty in the 8th century BCE
BCE

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History Of The Prepaid Mobile Phone
The HISTORY OF THE PREPAY MOBILE PHONE began in the 1990s when mobile phone operators sought to expand their market reach. Up until this point, mobile phone services were exclusively offered on a postpaid basis (contract-based), which excluded individuals with poor credit ratings and minors under the age of 18 (the typical age of contractual capacity ). Nowadays the prepay mobile phone is found across the world. CONTENTS * 1 First US prepay mobile phone installation * 2 Early Providers of prepay services * 3 Technical evolution * 4 See also * 5 References FIRST US PREPAY MOBILE PHONE INSTALLATIONA patent for prepay mobile phones (Patent Number 5826185) was filed on November 16, 1994. Among the first, if not the first large metropolitan area implementation of prepay mobile phone service in the United States was in the early 1990s at Houston Cellular Telephone Company , Houston, TX
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Photophone
The PHOTOPHONE is a telecommunications device that allows transmission of speech on a beam of light . It was invented jointly by Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter on February 19, 1880, at Bell's laboratory at 1325 L Street in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Both were later to become full associates in the Volta Laboratory Association , created and financed by Bell. On June 3, 1880, Bell's assistant transmitted a wireless voice telephone message from the roof of the Franklin School to the window of Bell's laboratory, some 213 meters (about 700 ft.) away. Bell believed the photophone was his most important invention
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History Of The Internet
The HISTORY OF THE INTERNET begins with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s. Initial concepts of packet networking originated in several computer science laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, and France. The US Department of Defense awarded contracts as early as the 1960s for packet network systems, including the development of the ARPANET
ARPANET
. The first message was sent over the ARPANET
ARPANET
from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock's laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles ( UCLA
UCLA
) to the second network node at Stanford Research Institute
Stanford Research Institute
(SRI )
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History Of Mobile Phones
The HISTORY OF MOBILE PHONES , covers mobile communication devices which connect wirelessly to the public switched telephone network . While the transmission of speech by radio has a long history, the first models that were wireless, mobile, and also capable of connecting to the standard telephone network are much more recent. The first such devices were barely portable compared to today's compact hand-held devices, and their use was clumsy. Along with the process of developing more portable technology, and better interconnections system, drastic changes have taken place in both the networking of wireless communication and the prevalence of its use, with smartphones becoming common globally and a growing proportion of Internet access
Internet access
now done via mobile broadband
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Optical Communication
OPTICAL COMMUNICATION, also known as OPTICAL TELECOMMUNICATION, is communication at a distance using light to carry information. It can be performed visually or by using electronic devices . The earliest basic forms of optical communication date back several millennia, while the earliest electrical device created to do so was the photophone , invented in 1880. An optical communication system uses a transmitter , which encodes a message into an optical signal , a channel , which carries the signal to its destination, and a receiver , which reproduces the message from the received optical signal. When electronic equipment is not employed the 'receiver' is a person visually observing and interpreting a signal, which may be either simple (such as the presence of a beacon fire ) or complex (such as lights using color codes or flashed in a Morse code
Morse code
sequence)
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Pager
A PAGER (also known as a BEEPER) is a wireless telecommunications device that receives and displays alphanumeric messages and/or receives and announces voice messages. ONE-WAY PAGERS can only receive messages, while RESPONSE PAGERS and TWO-WAY PAGERS can also acknowledge, reply to, and originate messages using an internal transmitter. Pagers operate as part of a paging system which includes one or more fixed transmitters (or in the case of response pagers and two-way pagers, one or more base stations ), as well as a number of pagers carried by mobile users. These systems can range from a restaurant system with a single low-power transmitter, to a nationwide system with thousands of high-power base stations. Pagers were developed in the 1950s and 1960s, and became widely used by the 1980s
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Telautograph
The TELAUTOGRAPH, an analog precursor to the modern fax machine, transmits electrical impulses recorded by potentiometers at the sending station to servomechanisms attached to a pen at the receiving station, thus reproducing at the receiving station a drawing or signature made by the sender. It was the first such device to transmit drawings to a stationary sheet of paper; previous inventions in Europe had used rotating drums to make such transmissions. The telautograph's invention is attributed to Elisha Gray , who patented it on July 31, 1888. Gray's patent stated that the telautograph would allow "one to transmit his own handwriting to a distant point over a two-wire circuit." It was the first facsimile machine in which the stylus was controlled by horizontal and vertical bars. The telautograph was first publicly exhibited at the 1893 World\'s Columbian Exposition held in Chicago
Chicago

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Telegraphy
TELEGRAPHY (from Greek : τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy, whereas pigeon post is not. Telegraphy
Telegraphy
requires that the method used for encoding the message be known to both sender and receiver. Many methods are designed according to the limits of the signalling medium used. The use of smoke signals , beacons , reflected light signals, and flag semaphore signals are early examples. In the 19th century, the harnessing of electricity led to the invention of electrical telegraphy . The advent of radio in the early 20th century brought about radiotelegraphy and other forms of wireless telegraphy
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John Logie Baird
JOHN LOGIE BAIRD FRSE (/ˈloʊɡi bɛərd/ ; 14 August 1888 – 14 June 1946) was a Scottish engineer, innovator, one of the inventors of the mechanical television , demonstrating the first working television system on 26 January 1926, and inventor of both the first publicly demonstrated colour television system, and the first purely electronic colour television picture tube. In 1928 the Baird Television Development Company achieved the first transatlantic television transmission. Baird's early technological successes and his role in the practical introduction of broadcast television for home entertainment have earned him a prominent place in television's history. Baird was ranked number 44 in the BBC
BBC
's list of the 100 Greatest Britons following a UK-wide vote in 2002
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Whistled Language
WHISTLED LANGUAGES use whistling to emulate speech and facilitate communication. A whistled language is a system of whistled communication which allows fluent whistlers to transmit and comprehend a potentially unlimited number of messages over long distances. Whistled languages are different in this respect from the restricted codes sometimes used by herders or animal trainers to transmit simple messages or instructions. Generally, whistled languages emulate the tones or vowel formants of a natural spoken language, as well as aspects of its intonation and prosody , so that trained listeners who speak that language can understand the encoded message. Whistled language is rare compared to spoken language, but it is found in cultures around the world. It is especially common in tone languages where the whistled tones transmit the tones of the syllables (tone melodies of the words)
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