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PCBs
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx. Polychlorinated biphenyls were once widely deployed as dielectric and coolant fluids in electrical apparatus, carbonless copy paper and in heat transfer fluids.[1] Because of their longevity, PCBs are still widely in use, even though their manufacture has declined drastically since the 1960s, when a host of problems were identified.[2] Because of PCBs' environmental toxicity and classification as a persistent organic pollutant, PCB production was banned by United States federal law in 1978 and by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2001.[3] The International Agency for Research on Cancer
International Agency for Research on Cancer
(IARC), rendered PCBs as definite carcinogens in humans. According to the U.S
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Arene Substitution Patterns
Arene substitution patterns are part of organic chemistry IUPAC nomenclature and pinpoint the position of substituents other than hydrogen in relation to each other on an aromatic hydrocarbon.Contents1 Ortho, meta, and para substitution 2 Ipso, meso, and peri substitution 3 Cine and tele substitution 4 Origins 5 Examples 6 ReferencesOrtho, meta, and para substitution[edit]Main arene substitution patternsSee also: Electrophilic aromatic substitutionIn ortho-substitution, two substituents occupy positions next to each other, which may be numbered 1 and 2
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Lipophilicity
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene. These non-polar solvents are themselves lipophilic (translated as "fat-loving" or "fat-liking"[1][2])—the axiom that "like dissolves like" generally holds true. Thus lipophilic substances tend to dissolve in other lipophilic substances, while hydrophilic ("water-loving") substances tend to dissolve in water and other hydrophilic substances. Lipophilicity, hydrophobicity, and non-polarity can describe the same tendency towards participation in the London dispersion force
London dispersion force
as the terms are often used interchangeably
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Water (molecule)
Water
Water
(H 2O) is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from a hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" for its ability to dissolve many substances.[16][17] This allows it to be the "solvent of life".[18] It is the most abundant substance on Earth[19] and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface.[20] It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe.[19] Water
Water
molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them
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Solubility
Solubility
Solubility
is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and the pH of the solution. The extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration, where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the solution and begins to precipitate the excess amount of solute. Most often, the solvent is a liquid, which can be a pure substance or a mixture
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Nanogram
To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following lists describe various mass levels between 10−40 kg and 1053 kg.Contents1 Units of mass1.1 Other units 1.2 Below 10−21 g 1.3 10−19 to 10−16 g 1.4 10−12 to 10−7 g 1.5 10−9 to 10−4 g 1.6 0.001 grams to 1 gram  1.7 1,000 grams to 100 tonnes 1.8 106 to 1011 kg 1.9 1012 to 1017 kg 1.10 1018 to 1023 kg 1.11 1024 to 1029 kg 1.12 1030 to 1035 kg 1.13 1036 to 1041 kg 1.14 1042 kg and greater2 Notes 3 External linksUnits of mass[edit]SI multiples for gram (g)SubmultiplesMultiplesValue SI symbol Name Value SI symbol Name10−1 g dg decigram 101 g dag decagram10−2 g cg centigram 102 g hg hectogram10−3 g mg milligram 103 g kg kilogram10−6 g µg microgram (mcg) 106 g Mg megagram (tonne)10−9 g ng nanogram 109 g Gg gigagram10−12 g pg picogram 1012 g Tg teragram10−15 g fg femtogram 1015 g Pg petagram<
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Solvent
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid. The quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with temperature. Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene), as paint thinners (e.g. toluene, turpentine), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate), in spot removers (e.g. hexane, petrol ether), in detergents (citrus terpenes) and in perfumes (ethanol). Water is a solvent for polar molecules and the most common solvent used by living things; all the ions and proteins in a cell are dissolved in water within a cell
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Fat
Fat
Fat
is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.[1] Fats, also known as triglycerides, are esters of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol. The terms "lipid", "oil" and "fat" are often confused. "Lipid" is the general term, though a lipid is not necessarily a triglyceride. "Oil" normally refers to a lipid with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains that is liquid at room temperature, while "fat" (in the strict sense) may specifically refer to lipids that are solids at room temperature – however, "fat" (in the broad sense) may be used in food science as a synonym for lipid. Fats, like other lipids, are generally hydrophobic, and are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water. Fat
Fat
is an important foodstuff for many forms of life, and fats serve both structural and metabolic functions. They are a necessary part of the diet of most heterotrophs (including humans)
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Vapor Pressure
Vapor
Vapor
pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system. The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate. It relates to the tendency of particles to escape from the liquid (or a solid). A substance with a high vapor pressure at normal temperatures is often referred to as volatile. The pressure exhibited by vapor present above a liquid surface is known as vapor pressure. As the temperature of a liquid increases, the kinetic energy of its molecules also increases. As the kinetic energy of the molecules increases, the number of molecules transitioning into a vapor also increases, thereby increasing the vapor pressure. The vapor pressure of any substance increases non-linearly with temperature according to the Clausius–Clapeyron relation
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Thermal Conductivity
Thermal conductivity
Thermal conductivity
(often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat. It is evaluated primarily in terms of the Fourier's Law for heat conduction. In general, thermal conductivity is a tensor property, expressing the anisotropy of the property. Heat transfer
Heat transfer
occurs at a lower rate in materials of low thermal conductivity than in materials of high thermal conductivity. Correspondingly, materials of high thermal conductivity are widely used in heat sink applications and materials of low thermal conductivity are used as thermal insulation. The thermal conductivity of a material may depend on temperature
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Flash Point
The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapours of the material will ignite, when given an ignition source. The flash point may sometimes be confused with the autoignition temperature, which is the temperature at which the vapor ignites spontaneously without an ignition source. The fire point is the lowest temperature at which vapors of the material will keep burning after being ignited and the ignition source removed
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Dibenzofurans
Dibenzofuran is a heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical structure shown at right. It is an aromatic compound that has two benzene rings fused to a central furan ring. All the numbered carbon atoms have a hydrogen atom bonded to each of them (not shown in the image). It is a volatile white solid that is soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. It is obtained from coal tar, where it exists as a 1% component.[1]Contents1 Reactions 2 Safety 3 See also 4 ReferencesReactions[edit] Dibenzofuran is thermally robust with a convenient liquid range. These properties, together with its low toxicity, are exploited by the use of DBF as a heat transfer agent.[1] It undergoes electrophilic reactions, such as halogenation and Friedel-Crafts reactions
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Viscosity
The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.[1] For liquids, it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness"; for example, honey has higher viscosity than water.[2] Viscosity
Viscosity
is a property of the fluid which opposes the relative motion between the two surfaces of the fluid that are moving at different velocities. In simple terms, viscosity means friction between the molecules of fluid. When the fluid is forced through a tube, the particles which compose the fluid generally move more quickly near the tube's axis and more slowly near its walls; therefore some stress (such as a pressure difference between the two ends of the tube) is needed to overcome the friction between particle layers to keep the fluid moving
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Catalysis
Catalysis
Catalysis
(/kəˈtælɪsɪs/) is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst[1] (/ˈkætəlɪst/), which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly. Often only tiny amounts of catalyst are required in principle.[2] In general, the reactions occur faster with a catalyst because they require less activation energy. In catalyzed mechanisms, the catalyst usually reacts to form a temporary intermediate which then regenerates the original catalyst in a cyclic process. Catalysts may be classified as either homogeneous or heterogeneous. A homogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are dispersed in the same phase (usually gaseous or liquid) as the reactant molecules. A heterogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are not in the same phase as the reactants, which are typically gases or liquids that are adsorbed onto the surface of the solid catalyst
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Absorption (skin)
Skin absorption is a route by which substances can enter the body through the skin. Along with inhalation, ingestion and injection, dermal absorption is a route of exposure for toxic substances and route of administration for medication. Absorption of substances through the skin depends on a number of factors, the most important of which are concentration, duration of contact, solubility of medication, and physical condition of the skin and part of the body exposed. Skin (percutaneous, dermal) absorption is the transport of chemicals from the outer surface of the skin both into the skin and into circulation. Skin absorption relates to the degree of exposure to and possible effect of a substance which may enter the body through the skin. Human skin comes into contact with many agents intentionally and unintentionally. Skin absorption can occur from occupational, environmental, or consumer skin exposure to chemicals, cosmetics, or pharmaceutical products
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LaTeX
La TeX
TeX
(/ˈlɑːtɛx/ LAH-tekh or /ˈleɪtɛx/ LAY-tekh;[1] a shortening of Lamport TeX) is a document preparation system.[2] When writing, the writer uses plain text as opposed to the formatted text found in WYSIWYG
WYSIWYG
("what you see is what you get") word processors like Microsoft Word, LibreOffice Writer
LibreOffice Writer
and Apple Pages. The writer uses markup tagging conventions to define the general structure of a document (such as article, book, and letter), to stylise text throughout a document (such as bold and italics), and to add citations and cross-references. A TeX
TeX
distribution such as TeX
TeX
Live or Mik TeX
TeX
is used to produce an output file (such as PDF
PDF
or DVI) suitable for printing or digital distribution
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