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PCBs
A POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C 12H 10−xCl x. Polychlorinated biphenyls were once widely deployed as dielectric and coolant fluids in electrical apparatus, carbonless copy paper and in heat transfer fluids. Because of their longevity, PCBs are still widely in use, even though their manufacture has declined drastically since the 1960s, when a host of problems were identified. Because of PCBs' environmental toxicity and classification as a persistent organic pollutant , PCB production was banned by the United States Congress in 1979 and by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2001. The International Agency for Research on Cancer
International Agency for Research on Cancer
(IARC), rendered PCBs as definite carcinogens in humans. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), PCBs cause cancer in animals and are probable human carcinogens
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Thermal Conductivity
Thermal CONDUCTIVITY (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat . It is evaluated primarily in terms of Fourier\'s Law for heat conduction . Heat transfer
Heat transfer
occurs at a lower rate across materials of low thermal conductivity than across materials of high thermal conductivity. Correspondingly, materials of high thermal conductivity are widely used in heat sink applications and materials of low thermal conductivity are used as thermal insulation . The thermal conductivity of a material may depend on temperature. The reciprocal of thermal conductivity is called thermal resistivity. Thermal conductivity
Thermal conductivity
is actually a tensor , which means it is possible to have different values in different directions. See #Thermal anisotropy below
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Flash Point
The FLASH POINT of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapours of the material will ignite, when given an ignition source. The flash point may sometimes be confused with the autoignition temperature , which is the temperature at which the vapor ignites spontaneously without an ignition source. The fire point is the lowest temperature at which vapors of the material will keep burning after being ignited and the ignition source removed. The fire point is higher than the FLASH POINT, because at the flash point more vapor may not be produced rapidly enough to sustain combustion. Neither flash point nor fire point depends directly on the ignition source temperature, but it may be understood that ignition source temperature will be considerably higher than either the flash or fire point
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Lipophilicity
LIPOPHILICITY (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats , oils , lipids , and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene . These non-polar solvents are themselves lipophilic (translated as "fat-loving" or "fat-liking" )—the axiom that "like dissolves like" generally holds true. Thus lipophilic substances tend to dissolve in other lipophilic substances, while hydrophilic ("water-loving") substances tend to dissolve in water and other hydrophilic substances. Lipophilicity, hydrophobicity, and non-polarity can describe the same tendency towards participation in the London dispersion force
London dispersion force
as the terms are often used interchangeably. However, the terms "lipophilic" and "hydrophobic " are not synonymous, as can be seen with silicones and fluorocarbons , which are hydrophobic but not lipophilic
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Dibenzofurans
DIBENZOFURAN is a heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical structure shown at right. It is an aromatic compound that has two benzene rings fused to a central furan ring. All the numbered carbon atoms have a hydrogen atom bonded to each of them (not shown in the image). It is a volatile white solid that is soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. It is obtained from coal tar , where it exists as a 1% component. CONTENTS * 1 Reactions * 2 Safety * 3 See also * 4 References REACTIONSDibenzofuran is thermally robust with a convenient liquid range. These properties, together with its low toxicity, are exploited by the use of DBF as a heat transfer agent. It undergoes electrophilic reactions, such as halogenation and Friedel-Crafts reactions. Reaction of DBF with bultyl lithium results in dilithiation . Dibenzofuran is the precursor to the drug furobufen by Friedel-Crafts reaction with succinic anhydride
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Vapor Pressure
VAPOR PRESSURE or EQUILIBRIUM VAPOR PRESSURE is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system . The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate. It relates to the tendency of particles to escape from the liquid (or a solid). A substance with a high vapor pressure at normal temperatures is often referred to as volatile . The pressure exhibited by vapor present above a liquid surface is known as vapor pressure. As the temperature of a liquid increases, the kinetic energy of its molecules also increases. As the kinetic energy of the molecules increases, the number of molecules transitioning into a vapor also increases, thereby increasing the vapor pressure. The vapor pressure of any substance increases non-linearly with temperature according to the Clausius–Clapeyron relation
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Fat
FAT is one of the three main macronutrients , along with carbohydrate and protein . Fats, also known as triglycerides , are esters of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol . The terms "oil ", "fat", and "lipid " are often confused. "Oil" normally refers to a fat with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains that is liquid at room temperature , while "fat" may specifically refer to fats that are solids at room temperature. "Lipid" is the general term, though a lipid is not necessarily a triglyceride . Fats, like other lipids, are generally hydrophobic , and are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water. Fat
Fat
is an important foodstuff for many forms of life, and fats serve both structural and metabolic functions. They are a necessary part of the diet of most heterotrophs (including humans)
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Solubility
capacity of a specific solvent to hold a specific solute in solution in specified conditions "Soluble" redirects here. For the algebraic object called a "soluble group", see Solvable group . SOLUBILITY is the property of a solid , liquid , or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent . The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and the pH of the solution. The extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration, where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the solution and begins to precipitate the excess amount of solute. The solubility of a substance is an entirely different property from the rate of solution , which is how fast it dissolves. Most often, the solvent is a liquid, which can be a pure substance or a mixture
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Solvent
A SOLVENT (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution . A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid . The quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with temperature . Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene ), as paint thinners (e.g. toluene , turpentine ), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone , methyl acetate , ethyl acetate ), in spot removers (e.g. hexane , petrol ether), in detergents (citrus terpenes ) and in perfumes (ethanol ). Water is a solvent for polar molecules and the most common solvent used by living things; all the ions and proteins in a cell are dissolved in water within a cell. Solvents find various applications in chemical, pharmaceutical , oil, and gas industries, including in chemical syntheses and purification processes
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Catalysis
CATALYSIS (/kəˈtælᵻsᵻs/ ) is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a CATALYST (/ˈkætəlᵻst/ ), which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly. Often only tiny amounts of catalyst are required in principle. In general, reactions occur faster with a catalyst because they require less activation energy . In catalyzed mechanisms, the catalyst usually reacts to form a temporary intermediate which then regenerates the original catalyst in a cyclic process. Catalysts may be classified as either homogeneous or heterogeneous. A homogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are dispersed in the same phase (usually gaseous or liquid) as the reactant molecules. A heterogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are not in the same phase as the reactants, which are typically gases or liquids that are adsorbed onto the surface of the solid catalyst
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Absorption (skin)
Skin
Skin
ABSORPTION is a route by which substances can enter the body through the skin . Along with inhalation , ingestion and injection , dermal absorption is a route of exposure for toxic substances and route of administration for medication . Absorption of substances through the skin depends on a number of factors, the most important of which are concentration , duration of contact, solubility of medication, and physical condition of the skin and part of the body exposed. Skin
Skin
(percutaneous, dermal) absorption is the transport of chemicals from the outer surface of the skin both into the skin and into circulation. Skin
Skin
absorption relates to the degree of exposure to and possible effect of a substance which may enter the body through the skin. Human skin comes into contact with many agents intentionally and unintentionally
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Neoprene
NEOPRENE or POLYCHLOROPRENE is a family of synthetic rubbers that are produced by polymerization of chloroprene . Neoprene
Neoprene
exhibits good chemical stability and maintains flexibility over a wide temperature range. Neoprene
Neoprene
is sold either as solid rubber or in latex form, and is used in a wide variety of applications, such as laptop sleeves, orthopedic braces (wrist, knee, etc.), electrical insulation , liquid and sheet applied elastomeric membranes or flashings, and automotive fan belts
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS REGISTRY NUMBER, also referred to as CASRN or CAS NUMBER, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals , isotopes , alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of Unknown, Variable Composition, or Biological origin). The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences, plus additional information about each substance. It is updated with around 15,000 additional new substances daily
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Arene Substitution Patterns
ARENE SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS are part of organic chemistry IUPAC nomenclature and pinpoint the position of substituents other than hydrogen in relation to each other on an aromatic hydrocarbon . CONTENTS * 1 Ortho, meta, and para substitution * 2 Ipso, meso, and peri substitution * 3 Cine and tele substitution * 4 Origins * 5 Examples * 6 References ORTHO, META, AND PARA SUBSTITUTION Main arene substitution patterns See also: Electrophilic aromatic substitution * In ORTHO-SUBSTITUTION, two substituents occupy positions next to each other, which may be numbered 1 and 2. In the diagram, these positions are marked R and ortho. * In META-SUBSTITUTION the substituents occupy positions 1 and 3 (corresponding to R and meta in the diagram). * In PARA-SUBSTITUTION, the substituents occupy the opposite ends (positions 1 and 4, corresponding to R and para in the diagram)
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Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor
NM_001621 NM_013464 NM_001314027 REFSEQ (PROTEIN)NP_001612 NP_001300956 NP_038492 LOCATION (UCSC) Chr 7: 17.3 – 17.35 Mb Chr 7: 35.5 – 35.54 Mb PUBMED SEARCH Wikidata
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit MouseThe ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR (AHR or AHR or AHR or AHR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AHR gene . The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of biological responses to planar aromatic (aryl) hydrocarbons . This receptor has been shown to regulate xenobiotic -metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450 . The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is a member of the family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors . AHR binds several exogenous ligands such as natural plant flavonoids , polyphenolics and indoles , as well as synthetic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dioxin-like compounds
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