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Ovate
A hand axe (or handaxe) is a prehistoric stone tool with two faces that is the longest-used tool in human history. It is usually made from flint or chert. It is characteristic of the lower Acheulean
Acheulean
and middle Palaeolithic
Palaeolithic
(Mousterian) periods. Its technical name (biface) comes from the fact that the archetypical model is generally bifacial Lithic flake
Lithic flake
and almond-shaped (amygdaloidal). Hand axes tend to be symmetrical along their longitudinal axis and formed by pressure or percussion. The most common hand axes have a pointed end and rounded base, which gives them their characteristic shape, and both faces have been knapped to remove the natural cortex, at least partially
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Hatchet
A hatchet (from the Old French hachete, a diminutive form of hache, 'axe' of Germanic origin) is a single-handed striking tool with a sharp blade on one side used to cut and split wood, and a hammer head on the other side. Hatchets may also be used for hewing when making flattened surfaces on logs; when the hatchet head is optimized for this purpose it is called a broadaxe.[citation needed] A hatchet is a type of hand axe; a small axe meant to be used with one hand.[1] Hatchets have a variety of uses, such as tasks normally done by a pocket knife when one is not present. The hatchet can also be used to create a fire through sparks and friction
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Sagua La Grande
Sagua la Grande (nicknamed La Villa del Undoso, sometimes shortened in Sagua) is a municipality and city located on the north coast of the province of Villa Clara in central Cuba, on the Sagua la Grande River. The city is close to Mogotes de Jumagua, limestone cliffs. Many cays of the Sabana-Camaguey Archipelago
Sabana-Camaguey Archipelago
are located off the northern coast.Contents1 History 2 Demographics 3 Architecture 4 Personalities 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Sagua la Grande was founded in 1812[1] and established as a municipality in 1842. By the beginning of the 20th century, the city and its port (Isabela de Sagua), were an important commercial center. Presently, its economy is based on the sugar, chemical, mechanical, and food industries. Cattle raising and fishing are other important economic activities. Two city historians are notable
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Louis Laurent Gabriel De Mortillet
Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet
Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet
(29 August 1821 – 25 September 1898), French archeologist and anthropologist, was born at Meylan, Isère. Contents1 Biography 2 Typological stages 3 Stone age art 4 Published works 5 See also 6 ReferencesBiography[edit] Mortillet was educated at the Jesuit
Jesuit
college of Chambéry
Chambéry
and at the Paris Conservatoire. Becoming in 1847 proprietor of La Revue indépendante, he was implicated in the Revolution of 1848
Revolution of 1848
and sentenced to two years' imprisonment. He fled the country and during the next fifteen years lived abroad, chiefly in Italy. In 1858 he turned his attention to ethnological research, making a special study of the Swiss lake-dwellings
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François Bordes
François Bordes
François Bordes
(December 30, 1919 – April 30, 1981), also known by the pen name of Francis Carsac, was a French scientist, geologist, and archaeologist.Contents1 Biography 2 Bibliography2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Science fiction2.2.1 Novels 2.2.2 Short works 2.2.3 Translations3 See also 4 External linksBiography[edit] He was a professor of prehistory and quaternary geology at the Science Faculty of Bordeaux. He decisively renewed the approach of focusing on prehistoric lithic industries, introducing statistical studies in typology and expanding the use of experimental flint knapping. He was known among archaeologists throughout the world for his ability to replicate ancient stone implements. He also published many science fiction novels under his pen name. His books have not been translated into English. On the other hand, in the USSR
USSR
the science fiction of Carsac was very popular
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German Language
German (Deutsch [dɔʏtʃ] (listen)) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol
South Tyrol
in Italy, the German-speaking Community
German-speaking Community
of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship
Opole Voivodeship
in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group
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Dutch Language
 Aruba  Belgium  Curaçao  Netherlands  Sint Maarten  Suriname Benelux European Union South American Union CaricomRegulated by Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union)Language codesISO 639-1 nlISO 639-2 dut (B) nld (T)ISO 639-3 nld Dutch/FlemishGlottolog mode1257[4]Linguasphere 52-ACB-aDutch-speaking world (included are areas of daughter-language Afrikaans)Distribution of the Dutch language
Dutch language
and its dialects in Western EuropeThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Typology (archaeology)
In archaeology a typology is the result of the classification of things according to their physical characteristics. The products of the classification, i.e. the classes, are also called types. Most archaeological typologies organize portable artifacts into types, but typologies of larger structures, including buildings, field monuments, fortifications or roads, are equally possible. A typology helps to manage a large mass of archaeological data
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Gravettian
The Gravettian
Gravettian
was an archaeological industry of the European Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
that succeeded the Aurignacian
Aurignacian
c. 33,000 BP.[1][4] It is archaeologically the last European culture many consider unified,[5] and had mostly disappeared by c
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Solutrean
The Solutrean
The Solutrean
industry is a relatively advanced flint tool-making style of the Upper Palaeolithic, from around 22,000 to 17,000 BP. Solutrean
Solutrean
sites have been found in modern-day France and Spain.Contents1 Details 2 Solutrean hypothesis
Solutrean hypothesis
in North American archaeology 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDetails[edit] The term Solutrean
Solutrean
comes from the type-site of "Cros du Charnier", dating to around 21,000 years ago and located at Solutré, in east-central France near Mâcon. The Rock of Solutré
Rock of Solutré
site was discovered in 1866 by the French geologist and paleontologist Henry Testot-Ferry
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Magdalenian
The Magdalenian
Magdalenian
(also Madelenian; French: Magdalénien) refers to one of the later cultures of the Upper Paleolithic
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Lupemban Culture
The Lupemban is the name given by archaeologists to a central African culture which, though once thought to date between c. 30,000 and 12,000 BC, is now generally recognised to be far older (dates of c. 300,000 have been obtained from Twin Rivers, Zambia
Zambia
and Muguruk, Kenya, respectively). The industry is characterised by the occurrence of bi-facially flaked lanceolate points. It has been postulated that Lupemban tools, being generally distributed within the modern day Congo forest belt, may have been adapted to woodworking. The lanceolate points are commonly interpreted as being the surviving elements of composite spears.[1][2] Activity sites include: Kalambo Falls
Kalambo Falls
and Dundo. References[edit]^ " Kalambo Falls
Kalambo Falls
Prehistoric Site: Volume 3, The Earlier Cultures: Middle and ... - J. Desmond Clark, Julie Cormack, Susan Chin - Google Books". Google Books
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10th Millennium BC
The 10th millennium BC spanned the years 10000 through 9001 BC. It marks the beginning of the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
and Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
periods, which is the first part of the Holocene
Holocene
epoch. Agriculture, based on the cultivation of primitive forms of millet and rice, occurred in Southwest Asia.[1][page needed] Although agriculture was being developed in the Fertile Crescent, it would not be widely practiced for another 2,000 years.[citation needed] The world population was between one and ten million people,[2] most of whom were hunter-gatherer communities scattered over all continents except Antarctica
Antarctica
and Zealandia
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Cuba
Coordinates: 22°00′N 80°00′W / 22.000°N 80.000°W / 22.000; -80.000Republic of Cuba República de Cuba  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "¡Patria o Muerte, Venceremos!" (Spanish) "Homeland or Death, we shall overcome!"[1]Anthem: La Bayamesa Bayamo
Bayamo
Song [2]Location of  Cuba  (green)Capital and largest city Havana 23°8′N 82°23′W / 23.133°N 82.383°W / 23.133; -82.383Official languages SpanishEthnic groups (2012[3])64.1% White 26.6% Mulatto, Mest
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Lithic Reduction
Lithic reduction
Lithic reduction
involves the use of a hard hammer percussor, such as a hammerstone, a soft hammer fabricator (made of wood, bone or antler), or a wood or antler punch to detach lithic flakes from a lump of tool stone called a lithic core (also known as the "objective piece"). As flakes are detached in sequence, the original mass of stone is reduced; hence the term for this process. Lithic reduction may be performed in order to obtain sharp flakes, of which a variety of tools can be made, or to rough out a blank for later refinement into a projectile point, knife, or other object. Flakes of regular size that are at least twice as long as they are broad are called blades
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Neolithic
PaleolithicLower PaleolithicEarly Stone Age Homo Control of fire Stone tools Middle PaleolithicMiddle Stone Age Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis Homo
Homo
sapiens Recent African origin of modern humans Upper PaleolithicLater Stone Age Behavioral modernity, Atlatl, Origin of the domestic dog Epipalaeolithic Mesolithic<
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