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Ottonian
The Ottonian dynasty
Ottonian dynasty
(German: Ottonen) was a Saxon dynasty of German monarchs (919–1024), named after three of its kings and Holy Roman Emperors named Otto, especially its first Emperor Otto I. It is also known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin in the German stem duchy of Saxony. The family itself is also sometimes known as the Liudolfings (Liudolfinger), after its earliest known member Count Liudolf (d. 866) and one of its primary leading-names
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Westphalia
Westphalia
Westphalia
(/wɛstˈfeɪliə/; German: Westfalen pronounced [vɛstˈfaːlən]) is a region in northwestern Germany
Germany
and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It has an area of 20,208 km2 (7,802 sq mi) and 7.9 million inhabitants. The region is almost identical with the Province of Westphalia
Province of Westphalia
which was a part of the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
from 1815 to 1918[6] and the Free State of Prussia
Prussia
from 1918 to 1946. In 1946, Westphalia
Westphalia
merged with the Northern Rhineland, another former part of Prussia, to form the newly created state of North Rhine-Westphalia
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Leine
The Leine
Leine
(German: [ˈlaɪnə] ( listen); Old Saxon
Old Saxon
Lagina) is a river in Thuringia
Thuringia
and Lower Saxony, Germany. It is a left tributary of the Aller
Aller
and the Weser
Weser
and it is 281 km (175 mi) long. Leine
Leine
near NordstemmenThe river's source is located close to the town of Leinefelde
Leinefelde
in Thuringia. About 40 km (25 mi) downriver, the river enters Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
and runs northwards. Important towns along its course, from upstream to downstream, are Göttingen, Einbeck, Alfeld, and Gronau, before the river enters Hanover, the largest city on its banks
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Zwentibold
Zwentibold
Zwentibold
(Zventibold, Swentiboldo, Sventibaldo, Sanderbald; c. 870 – 13 August 900), a member of the Carolingian dynasty, was the illegitimate son of Emperor Arnulf.[1] In 895, his father, then king of East Francia, granted him the Kingdom of Lotharingia, which he ruled until his death.[1] After his death he was declared a saint and martyr by the Catholic Church.Contents1 Life1.1 Early life 1.2 King of Lotharingia 1.3 Death2 Family 3 Ancestry 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksLife[edit] Early life[edit] Zwentibold
Zwentibold
was born during the long reign of his great-grandfather, King Louis the German
Louis the German
in East Francia. He was the first-born, yet illegitimate son of Arnulf of Carinthia
Arnulf of Carinthia
(d. 899) and his concubine Vinburga. Zwentibold's father himself was an illegitimate son of Carloman of Bavaria, the eldest son of King Louis
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Kingdom Of Italy (Holy Roman Empire)
Timeline Italy
Italy
portalv t eThe Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(Latin: Regnum Italiae or Regnum Italicum, Italian: Regno d'Italia) was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy. It comprised northern and central Italy, but excluded the Republic of Venice. Its original capital was Pavia
Pavia
until the 11th century. In 773, Charlemagne, the King of the Franks, crossed the Alps
Alps
to invade the Kingdom of the Lombards, which encompassed all of Italy except the Duchy of Rome
Duchy of Rome
and some Byzantine possessions in the south. In June 774, the kingdom collapsed and the Franks
Franks
became masters of northern Italy. The southern areas remained under Lombard control in the Duchy of Benevento
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Arnulf Of Carinthia
Arnulf of Carinthia
Arnulf of Carinthia
(c
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Hersfeld Abbey
Hersfeld Abbey
Hersfeld Abbey
was an important Benedictine imperial abbey in the town of Bad Hersfeld
Bad Hersfeld
in Hesse
Hesse
(formerly in Hesse-Nassau), Germany, at the confluence of the rivers Geisa, Haune and Fulda.Territorium Abbatæ Heresfeldensis, 1645Border stone of Hersfeld Abbey
Hersfeld Abbey
on the old Werra bridge between Philippsthal and VachaContents1 History 2 Reformation 3 Dissolution 4 Buildings 5 Burials 6 Annals 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit] Hersfeld was founded by Saint Sturm, a disciple of Saint Boniface, in 736–742. Because its location rendered it vulnerable to attacks from the Saxons, however, he transferred it to Fulda
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Louis The German
Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) "the German" (c. 804-876), also known as Louis II, was the first king of East Francia. Grandson of emperor Charlemagne
Charlemagne
and the third son of emperor of Francia, Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye,[1] he received the appellation Germanicus shortly after his death in recognition of Magna Germania
Germania
of the Roman Empire, reflecting the Carolingian's imperial perspective.Kingdom of East FranciaContents1 Early life 2 Rebellious son 3 Civil war, 840-843 4 Conflicts with Charles the Bald 5 Divisio regni among the sons 6 Marriage and children 7 Ancestry 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksEarly life[edit] His early years were partly spent at the court of his grandfather, Charlemagne, whose special affection he is said to have won
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Dux
Dux
Dux
(/dʌks, dʊks/; plural: ducēs) is Latin
Latin
for "leader" (from the noun dux, ducis, "leader, general") and later for duke and its variant forms (doge, duce, etc.). During the Roman Republic, dux could refer to anyone who commanded troops, including foreign leaders, but was not a formal military rank. In writing his commentaries on the Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
uses the term only for Celtic generals, with one exception for a Roman commander who held no official rank.[1]Contents1 Roman Empire1.1 Original usage 1.2 Change in usage 1.3 The office under the Dominate2 Later developments 3 Post-Roman uses3.1 Education4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksRoman Empire[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Altfrid
Saint Altfrid
Altfrid
(or Altfrid
Altfrid
of Hildesheim) (died 15 August 874) was a leading figure in Germany in the ninth century. A Benedictine monk, he became Bishop of Hildesheim, and founded Essen
Essen
Abbey. He was also a close royal adviser to the East Frankish King Louis the German. He is a Roman Catholic saint. His feast day is celebrated on 15 August, the feast of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, but also in Essen
Essen
and Hildesheim on 16 August.Contents1 Life 2 Diplomat 3 Death and after 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksLife[edit] There is no contemporary biography of Altfrid. He is first mentioned by name on 3 October 852, when he took part in a council in Mainz
Mainz
as Bishop of Hildesheim. According to the Hildesheim Chronicle Altfrid
Altfrid
died "rich in days" in 874, from which a year of birth of around 800 is assumed
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Billung
The House of Billung was a dynasty of Saxon noblemen in the 9th through 12th centuries. The first known member of the house was Count Wichmann, mentioned as a Billung in 811. Oda, the wife of Count Liudolf, oldest known member of the Liudolfing
Liudolfing
House, was also a Billung. In the 10th century, the property of the family was centered in the Bardengau around Lüneburg
Lüneburg
and they controlled the march named after them. In the middle of the 10th century, when the Saxon dukes of the House of Liudolfing
Liudolfing
had also become German kings, King Otto the Great entrusted more and more of his ducal authority to Hermann Billung. For five generations, the House of Billung ruled the Duchy of Saxony. The house submerged into the Welf and Ascania dynasties when Duke Magnus died in 1106 without sons; the family's property was divided between his two daughters
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Saxon Wars
The Saxon Wars
Saxon Wars
were the campaigns and insurrections of the more than thirty years from 772, when Charlemagne
Charlemagne
first entered Saxony
Saxony
with the intent to conquer, to 804, when the last rebellion of disaffected tribesmen was crushed. In all, eighteen battles were fought in what is now northwestern Germany. They resulted in the incorporation of Saxony into the Frankish realm and their forcible conversion from Germanic paganism to Catholicism.[1] Despite repeated setbacks, the Saxons
Saxons
resisted steadfastly, returning to raid Charlemagne's domains as soon as he turned his attention elsewhere
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Carolingian Empire
The Carolingian Empire
Empire
(800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe
Europe
during the early Middle Ages. It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, which had ruled as kings of the Franks
Franks
since 751 and as kings of the Lombards
Lombards
of Italy
Italy
from 774. In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was crowned emperor in Rome
Rome
by Pope Leo III in an effort to revive the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the west during a vacancy in the throne of the eastern Roman Empire. After a civil war (840–43) following the death of Emperor Louis the Pious, the empire was divided into autonomous kingdoms, with one king still recognised as emperor, but with little authority outside his own kingdom
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Ministerialis
Ministerialis
Ministerialis
(plural ministeriales; a post-classical Latin
Latin
word, used in English, meaning originally "servitor" or "agent", in a broad range of senses) were people raised up from serfdom to be placed in positions of power and responsibility. In the Holy Roman Empire, in the High Middle Ages, the word and its German translations, Ministeriale(n) and Dienstmann, came to describe those unfree nobles who made up a large majority of what could be described as the German knighthood during that time. What began as an irregular arrangement of workers with a wide variety of duties and restrictions rose in status and wealth to become the power brokers of an empire. The ministeriales were not legally free people, but held social rank
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Duchy Of Thuringia
The Duchy of Thuringia
Thuringia
was an eastern frontier march of the Merovingian kingdom of Austrasia, established about 631 by King Dagobert I
Dagobert I
after his troops had been defeated by the forces of the Slavic confederation of Samo
Samo
at the Battle of Wogastisburg. It was recreated in the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and its dukes appointed by the king until it was absorbed by the Saxon dukes in 908
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Harz
The Harz
Harz
is a Mittelgebirge
Mittelgebirge
that has the highest elevations in Northern Germany
Germany
and its rugged terrain extends across parts of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia. The name Harz
Harz
derives from the Middle High German
Middle High German
word Hardt or Hart (hill forest), Latinized as Hercynia. The Brocken
Brocken
is the highest summit in the Harz
Harz
with an elevation of 1,141.1 metres (3,744 ft) above sea level
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