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Otto Struve
OTTO STRUVE (August 12, 1897 – April 6, 1963 ) was a Russian astronomer. In Russian, his name is sometimes given as OTTO LYUDVIGOVICH STRUVE (Отто Людвигович Струве); however, he spent most of his life and his entire scientific career in the United States
United States
. Otto was the descendant of famous astronomers of the Struve family ; he was the son of Ludwig Struve , grandson of Otto Wilhelm von Struve and great-grandson of Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve . He was also the nephew of Karl Hermann Struve
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Russian Civil War
RUSSIAN SFSR (7 November 1917–30 December 1922) Ukrainian SSR (20 November 1917–30 December 1922) ------------------------- Left SR Green armies (1919–1920) ------------------------- Makhnovschyna (1918–1920) WHITE MOVEMENT Including: * Orenburg Cossacks (8 November 1917–7 February 1921) * Don Republic
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Gallipoli
Coordinates : 40°21′N 26°28′E / 40.350°N 26.467°E / 40.350; 26.467 Satellite image of the Gallipoli
Gallipoli
peninsula and surrounding area A view of the Dardanelles from a ship The GALLIPOLI peninsula (/ɡəˈlɪpəli, ɡæ-/ ; Turkish : Gelibolu Yarımadası; Greek : Χερσόνησσος της Καλλίπολης) is located in the southern part of East Thrace , the European part of Turkey
Turkey
, with the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east. Gallipoli
Gallipoli
is the Italian form of the Greek name "Καλλίπολις" (Kallípolis), meaning "Beautiful City", the original name of the modern town of Gelibolu
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Constantinople
Κωνσταντινούπολις or Κωνσταντινούπολη (in Greek) Constantinopolis (in Latin) Map of Constantinople
Constantinople
Shown within Turkey
Turkey
ALTERNATE NAME Byzantion (earlier Greek n
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Berlin Observatory
The BERLIN OBSERVATORY (BERLINER STERNWARTE) is a German astronomical institution with a series of observatories and related organizations in and around the city of Berlin
Berlin
in Germany
Germany
, starting from the 18th century. It has its origins in 1700 when Gottfried Leibniz
Gottfried Leibniz
initiated the "Brandenburg Society of Science″ (Sozietät der Wissenschaften) which would later (1744) become the Prussian Academy of Sciences (Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften). The Society had no observatory but nevertheless an astronomer, Gottfried Kirch , who observed from a private observatory in Berlin. A first small observatory was furnished in 1711, financing itself by calendrical computations. In 1825 Johann Franz Encke was appointed director by King Frederick William III of Prussia
Prussia

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Tuberculosis
TUBERCULOSIS (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
generally affects the lungs , but can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections do not have symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis . About 10% of latent infections progress to active disease which, if left untreated, kills about half of those infected. The classic symptoms of active TB are a chronic cough with blood-containing sputum , fever , night sweats , and weight loss . The historical term "CONSUMPTION" came about due to the weight loss. Infection of other organs can cause a wide range of symptoms. Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
is spread through the air when people who have active TB in their lungs cough, spit, speak, or sneeze. People with latent TB do not spread the disease
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Sevastopol
SEVASTOPOL or traditionally SEBASTOPOL (/sɛvəˈstoʊpəl, -ˈstɒpəl/ or /sɛˈvæstəpəl, -pɒl/ Ukrainian : Севастополь; Russian : Севасто́поль; Crimean Tatar : Акъяр, Aqyar; Greek : Σεβαστούπολη, Sevastoupoli) is a city located in the southwestern region of the Crimean Peninsula on the Black Sea
Black Sea
. As a result of the 2014 Russian annexation , the city is administered as a federal city of the Russian Federation , though Ukraine
Ukraine
and most of the UN member countries continue to regard Sevastopol
Sevastopol
as a city with special status within Ukraine
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Stellar Rotation
STELLAR ROTATION is the angular motion of a star about its axis. The rate of rotation can be measured from the spectrum of the star, or by timing the movements of active features on the surface. The rotation of a star produces an equatorial bulge due to centrifugal force . As stars are not solid bodies, they can also undergo differential rotation . Thus the equator of the star can rotate at a different angular velocity than the higher latitudes . These differences in the rate of rotation within a star may have a significant role in the generation of a stellar magnetic field . The magnetic field of a star interacts with the stellar wind . As the wind moves away from the star its rate of angular velocity slows. The magnetic field of the star interacts with the wind, which applies a drag to the stellar rotation. As a result, angular momentum is transferred from the star to the wind, and over time this gradually slows the star's rate of rotation
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Interstellar Matter
In astronomy , the INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy . This matter includes gas in ionic , atomic , and molecular form, as well as dust and cosmic rays . It fills interstellar space and blends smoothly into the surrounding intergalactic space . The energy that occupies the same volume, in the form of electromagnetic radiation , is the INTERSTELLAR RADIATION FIELD. The interstellar medium is composed of multiple phases, distinguished by whether matter is ionic, atomic, or molecular, and the temperature and density of the matter. The interstellar medium is composed primarily of hydrogen followed by helium with trace amounts of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen comparatively to hydrogen. The thermal pressures of these phases are in rough equilibrium with one another
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White Movement
PA-RG : Alexander Kolchak
Alexander Kolchak
(1918–20) NORTH-WEST ARMY: Nikolai Yudenich (1919–20) VOLUNTEER ARMY : Lavr Kornilov (1917–20) AFSR : Anton Denikin
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Gamma Ursae Minoris
GAMMA URSAE MINORIS (γ URSAE MINORIS, abbreviated GAMMA UMI, γ UMI), also named PHERKAD, is a star in the northern circumpolar constellation of Ursa Minor . Together with Beta Ursae Minoris
Beta Ursae Minoris
(named Kochab), Gamma forms the end of the dipper pan of the "Little Dipper", which is an asterism forming the tail of the bear. CONTENTS * 1 Nomenclature * 2 Properties * 3 Pherkad in fiction * 4 References NOMENCLATUREγ Ursae Minoris (Latinised to Gamma Ursae Minoris) is the star's Bayer designation . It bore the traditional name Pherkad, which derived from the Arabic فرقد farqad "calf", short for aḫfa al farkadayn "the dim one of the two calves", that is Pherkad and Kochab (the full name Ahfa al Farkadain is traditionally applied to ζ Ursae Minoris ). Gamma Ursae Minoris was sometimes called Pherkad Major to distinguish it from 11 Ursae Minoris Pherkad Minor
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Asteroid
ASTEROIDS are minor planets , especially those of the inner Solar System . The larger ones have also been called PLANETOIDS. These terms have historically been applied to any astronomical object orbiting the Sun
Sun
that did not show the disc of a planet and was not observed to have the characteristics of an active comet . As minor planets in the outer Solar System
Solar System
were discovered and found to have volatile-based surfaces that resemble those of comets, they were often distinguished from asteroids of the asteroid belt . In this article, the term "asteroid" refers to the minor planets of the inner Solar System including those co-orbital with Jupiter
Jupiter
. There are millions of asteroids, many thought to be the shattered remnants of planetesimals , bodies within the young Sun's solar nebula that never grew large enough to become planets
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Jan Oort
JAN HENDRIK OORT ForMemRS (/ˈɔːrt/ or /ˈʊərt/ ; 28 April 1900 – 5 November 1992) was a Dutch astronomer who made significant contributions to the understanding of the Milky Way and who was a pioneer in the field of radio astronomy . His New York Times obituary called him “one of the century's foremost explorers of the universe;” the European Space Agency website describes him as, “one of the greatest astronomers of the 20th century,” and states that he “revolutionised astronomy through his ground-breaking discoveries.” In 1955, Oort’s name appeared in Life Magazine’s list of the 100 most famous living people. He has been described as “putting the Netherlands
Netherlands
in the forefront of postwar astronomy.” Oort determined that the Milky Way rotates and overturned the idea that the Sun
Sun
was at its center
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Nobel Prize In Physics
Takaaki Kajita Arthur B. McDonald (2015) NOBEL LAUREATE(S) IN PHYSICSDavid J. Thouless Duncan Haldane J. Michael Kosterlitz (2016) Wilhelm Röntgen (1845–1923), the first recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics. The NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS (Swedish : Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics
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Gerard Kuiper
GERARD PETER KUIPER (English: /ˈkaɪpər/ ; Dutch pronunciation: ; born GERRIT PIETER KUIPER; December 7, 1905 – December 23, 1973) was a Dutch–American astronomer, planetary scientist, selenographer, author and professor. He is the eponymous namesake of the Kuiper belt . Kuiper is considered by many to be the father of modern planetary science . As professor at the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
, he was dissertation advisor to Carl Sagan
Carl Sagan
. In 1958, the two worked on the classified military Project A119 , the secret Air Force plan to detonate a nuclear warhead on the Moon. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Discoveries * 3 Honors * 4 References * 5 External links EARLY LIFEKuiper, the son of a tailor in the village of Harenkarspel in North Holland , had an early interest in astronomy
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Kuiper Prize
The GERARD P. KUIPER PRIZE is awarded annually by the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society for outstanding lifetime achievement in the field of planetary science . The prize is named for Gerard P. Kuiper
Gerard P. Kuiper
. KUIPER PRIZE WINNERSSource: Gerard P. Kuiper
Gerard P. Kuiper
Prize, American Astronomical Society * 1984 Eugene M. Shoemaker
Eugene M. Shoemaker
* 1985 Fred L. Whipple * 1986 George W. Wetherill * 1987 Donald M. Hunten * 1988 Rudolph A. Hanel * 1989 James B. Pollack * 1990 Viktor S. Safronov * 1991 Edward Anders * 1992 Peter Goldreich * 1993 James R. Arnold * 1994 James A. Van Allen * 1995 Michael J. Belton * 1996 Barney J. Conrath * 1997 Irwin I
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