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Ostrogoths
The Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
(Latin: Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths
Goths
(the other major branch being the Visigoths). The Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
traced their origins to the Greutungi
Greutungi
– a branch of the Goths
Goths
who had migrated southward from the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
and established a kingdom north of the Black Sea, during the 3rd and 4th centuries. They built an empire stretching from the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the Baltic. The Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
were probably literate in the 3rd century, and their trade with the Romans was highly developed
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San Apollinare Nuovo
The Basilica
Basilica
of Sant' Apollinare Nuovo is a basilica church in Ravenna, Italy. It was erected by Ostrogoth
Ostrogoth
King Theodoric the Great as his palace chapel during the first quarter of the 6th century (as attested to in the Liber Pontificalis). This Arian
Arian
church was originally dedicated in 504 AD to "Christ the Redeemer".[1] It was reconsecrated in 561 AD, under the rule of the Byzantine emperor Justinian
Justinian
I, under the new name "Sanctus Martinus in Coelo Aureo" ("Saint Martin in Golden Heaven"). Suppressing the Arian
Arian
cult, the church was dedicated to Saint Martin of Tours, a foe of Arianism. According to legend, Pope Gregory the Great
Pope Gregory the Great
ordered that the mosaics in the church be blackened, as their golden glory distracted worshipers from their prayers
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Illyria
In classical antiquity, Illyria
Illyria
(Ancient Greek: Ἰλλυρία, Illyría or Ἰλλυρίς, Illyrís;[1][2] Latin: Illyria,[3] see also Illyricum) was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians. The prehistory of Illyria
Illyria
and the Illyrians
Illyrians
is known from archaeological evidence
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Danube
The Danube
Danube
or Donau (/ˈdænjuːb/ DAN-yoob, known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe. The Danube
Danube
was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, and today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Originating in Germany, the Danube
Danube
flows southeast for 2,860 km (1,780 mi), passing through or touching the border of Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova
Moldova
and Ukraine
Ukraine
before emptying into the Black Sea. Its drainage basin extends into nine more countries
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Zosimus
Zosimus (Greek: Ζώσιμος [ˈzosimos]; also known by the Latin name Zosimus Historicus, i.e. " Zosimus the Historian"; fl. 490s–510s) was a Greek historian who lived in Constantinople
Constantinople
during the reign of the Eastern Roman Emperor
Eastern Roman Emperor
Anastasius I (491–518). According to Photius, he was a comes, and held the office of "advocate" of the imperial treasury.[1] Zosimus was also known for condemning Constantine’s rejection of the pagan gods.Contents1 Historia Nova 2 Editions 3 References 4 External linksHistoria Nova[edit] Zosimus' Historia Nova (Ἱστορία Νέα, "New History") is written in Greek in six books. For the period from 238 to 270, he apparently uses Dexippus; for the period from 270 to 404, Eunapius; and after 407, Olympiodorus
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Athanaric
Athanaric or Atanaric[1] (Latin: Athanaricus; died 381) was king of several branches of the Thervingian Goths
Goths
for at least two decades in the 4th century. Athanaric made his first appearance in recorded history in 369, when he engaged in battle with the Eastern Roman Emperor Valens
Valens
and ultimately negotiated a favorable peace for his people. During his reign, many Thervings
Thervings
had converted to Arian Christianity, which Athanaric vehemently opposed, fearing that Christianity
Christianity
would destroy Gothic culture. According to the report of Sozomenos, more than 300 Christians were killed in Athanaric's persecution during the 370s. Fritigern, Athanaric's rival, was an Arian and had the favor of Valens, who shared his religious beliefs
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Alaric I
Alaric I
Alaric I
(/ˈælərɪk/; Gothic: *Alareiks, "ruler of all";[2] Latin: Alaricus; 370 (or 375) – 410 AD) was the first King of the Visigoths
Visigoths
from 395–410, son (or paternal grandson) of chieftain Rothestes.[3] Alaric is best known for his sack of Rome
Rome
in 410, which marked a decisive event in the decline of the Roman Empire. Alaric began his career under the Goth soldiers Gainas and later joined the Roman army. Alaric's first appearance was as the leader of a mixed band of Goths
Goths
and allied peoples who invaded Thrace
Thrace
in 391 and were stopped by the half- Vandal
Vandal
Roman General Stilicho. In 394 he led a Gothic force of 20,000 that helped the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius defeat the Frankish usurper Arbogast at the Battle of Frigidus
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Jordanes
Jordanes
Jordanes
(/dʒɔːrˈdeɪniːz/),[1] also written Jordanis or, uncommonly, Jornandes,[2] was a 6th-century Eastern Roman bureaucrat of Gothic extraction[3] who turned his hand to history later in life. Jordanes
Jordanes
wrote Romana, about the history of Rome, but his best-known work is his Getica, which was written in Constantinople
Constantinople
[4] about AD 551.[5] It is the only extant ancient work dealing with the early history of the Goths. Jordanes
Jordanes
was asked by a friend to write Getica
Getica
as a summary of a multi-volume history of the Goths
Goths
by the statesman Cassiodorus
Cassiodorus
that had existed then but has since been lost
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Herwig Wolfram
Herwig Wolfram (14 February 1934, Vienna) is an Austrian historian. Professor emeritus at the University of Vienna,[1] from 1983 until 2002 he was Director of the Austrian Institute for Historical Research (Institut für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung).[2]Contents1 Honours and awards 2 Select bibliography 3 References 4 External linksHonours and awards[edit]Member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences Corresponding member of Monumenta Historica Austrian Medal for Science and Art
Austrian Medal for Science and Art
(2000)[3] Cardinal Innitzer Prize (2011) Corresponding member of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts (2015)[4]Select bibliography[edit] Works in English translation. For a complete list see the German National LibraryHistory of the Goths, University of California Press, 1990. ISBN 0-520-06983-8 The Roman Empire and Its Germanic Peoples, University of California Press, 1997
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Phrygia
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Claudian
Claudius Claudianus, usually known in English as Claudian (/ˈklɔːdiən/; c. 370 – c. 404 AD), was a Latin poet associated with the court of the emperor Honorius at Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(Milan), and particularly with the general Stilicho. His work, written almost entirely in hexameters or elegiac couplets, falls into three main categories: poems for Honorius, poems for Stilicho, and mythological epic.[1]Contents1 Life 2 As poet 3 Works 4 Editions and translations 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksLife[edit] Claudian
Claudian
was born in Alexandria. He arrived in Rome before 395, and made his mark with a eulogy of his two young patrons, Probinus and Olybrius, thereby becoming court poet. He wrote a number of panegyrics on the consulship of his patrons, praise poems for the deeds of Stilicho, and invectives directed at Stilicho's rivals in the Eastern court of Arcadius. He was well rewarded for these efforts
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Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus
(born c. 330[1], died c. 391 – 400) was a Roman soldier and historian who wrote the penultimate major historical account surviving from Antiquity (preceding Procopius)
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Moesia
Moesia
Moesia
(/ˈmiːʃə, -siə, -ʒə/;[1][2] Latin: Moesia; Greek: Μοισία, Moisía)[3] was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans, along the south bank of the Danube River
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Crimea
Crimea
Crimea
(/kraɪˈmiːə/; Ukrainian: Крим, Krym; Russian: Крым, Krym; Crimean Tatar: Къырым, translit. Qırım; Turkish: Kırım; Ancient Greek: Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit. Kimmería/Taurikḗ) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea
Black Sea
in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the smaller Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
to the northeast. It is located south of the Ukrainian region of Kherson
Kherson
and west of the Russian region of Kuban. It is connected to Kherson
Kherson
Oblast by the Isthmus of Perekop
Isthmus of Perekop
and is separated from Kuban
Kuban
by the Strait of Kerch
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Walha
* Walhaz
Walhaz
is a reconstructed Proto-Germanic word meaning "foreigner", "stranger", "Roman", "Romance-speaker", or "Celtic-speaker". The term was used by the ancient Germanic peoples to describe inhabitants of the former Western Roman Empire, who were largely romanised and spoke Latin or Celtic languages
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