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Osteichthyes
Osteichthyes
Osteichthyes
/ˌɒstiːˈɪkθi.iːz/, popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue, as opposed to cartilage. The vast majority of fish are members of Osteichthyes, which is an extremely diverse and abundant group consisting of 45 orders, and over 435 families and 28,000 species.[1] It is the largest class of vertebrates in existence today. The group Osteichthyes
Osteichthyes
is divided into the ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) and lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygii). The oldest known fossils of bony fish are about 420 million years ago, which are also transitional fossils, showing a tooth pattern that is in between the tooth rows of sharks and bony fishes.[2] Osteichthyes
Osteichthyes
can be compared to Euteleostomi. In paleontology, the terms are synonymous
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Megaannum
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley
PC PRS FLS (/ˈhʌksli/; 4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy. He is known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution.[2] Huxley's famous debate in 1860 with Samuel Wilberforce
Samuel Wilberforce
was a key moment in the wider acceptance of evolution and in his own career. Huxley had been planning to leave Oxford
Oxford
on the previous day, but, after an encounter with Robert Chambers, the author of Vestiges, he changed his mind and decided to join the debate. Wilberforce was coached by Richard Owen, against whom Huxley also debated about whether humans were closely related to apes. Huxley was slow to accept some of Darwin's ideas, such as gradualism, and was undecided about natural selection, but despite this he was wholehearted in his public support of Darwin
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Fissure
In anatomy, a fissure ( Latin
Latin
fissura, plural fissurae) is a groove, natural division, deep furrow, elongated cleft, or tear in various parts of the body also generally called a sulcus, or in the brain a sulcus.Contents1 Types1.1 Brain 1.2 Skull 1.3 Liver 1.4 Spinal cord 1.5 Lung 1.6 Other2 Abnormal fissureTypes[edit] Brain[edit] Medial longitudinal fissure
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Posterior (anatomy)
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. All vertebrates (including humans) have the same basic body plan – they are strictly bilaterally symmetrical in early embryonic stages and largely bilaterally symmetrical in adulthood.[1] That is, they have mirror-image left and right halves if divided down the centre.[2] For these reasons, the basic directional terms can be considered to be those used in vertebrates. By extension, the same terms are used for many other (invertebrate) organisms as well. While these terms are standardized within specific fields of biology, there are unavoidable, sometimes dramatic, differences between some disciplines
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Anterior
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. All vertebrates (including humans) have the same basic body plan – they are strictly bilaterally symmetrical in early embryonic stages and largely bilaterally symmetrical in adulthood.[1] That is, they have mirror-image left and right halves if divided down the centre.[2] For these reasons, the basic directional terms can be considered to be those used in vertebrates. By extension, the same terms are used for many other (invertebrate) organisms as well. While these terms are standardized within specific fields of biology, there are unavoidable, sometimes dramatic, differences between some disciplines
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Sclerotic Ring
Sclerotic rings are rings of bone found in the eyes of several groups of vertebrate animals, except for mammals and crocodilians.[2] They can be made up of single bones or multiple segments[3] and take their name from the sclera. They are believed to have a role in supporting the eye, especially in animals whose eyes are not spherical, or which live underwater.[2] Fossil
Fossil
sclerotic rings are known for a variety of extinct animals, including ichthyosaurs, pterosaurs, and dinosaurs,[4] but are often not preserved. References[edit]^ Milner, Angela. " Ophthalmosaurus
Ophthalmosaurus
icenicus: Why did it have such large eyes?". Natural History Museum, London. Retrieved 15 October 2013.  ^ a b Motani, Ryosuke (15 November 2001). "Eyes of Ichthyosaurs". UC Museum of Paleontology. Retrieved 15 October 2013.  ^ "Palaeos Vertebrates: Glossary S". Retrieved 2007-07-06.  ^ Pigdon, Dann
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Mandible
The mandible, lower jaw or jawbone is the largest, strongest and lowest bone in the human face.[2] It forms the lower jaw and holds the lower teeth in place. The mandible sits beneath the maxilla. The mandible is the only movable bone of the skull not counting the ossicles of the middle ear. The bone is formed from a fusion of left and right processes, and the point where these sides join, the mandibular symphysis, is still visible as a faint ridge in the midline
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Cranial Bone
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in most vertebrates. It supports the structures of the face and provides a protective cavity for the brain.[1] The skull is composed of two parts: the cranium and the mandible. In the human these two parts are the neurocranium and the viscerocranium or facial skeleton that includes the mandible as its largest bone. The skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation—housing the brain, and several sensory structures such as the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth.[2] In humans these sensory structures are part of the facial skeleton. Functions of the skull include protection of the brain, fixing the distance between the eyes to allow stereoscopic vision, and fixing the position of the ears to enable sound localisation of the direction and distance of sounds
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Cladistic
Cladistics
Cladistics
(from Greek κλάδος, klados, i.e., "branch")[1] is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor. Hypothesized relationships are typically based on shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies) that can be traced to the most recent common ancestor and are not present in more distant groups and ancestors. A key feature of a clade is that all descendants stay in their overarching ancestral clade. Radiation results in the generation of new subclades by bifurcation.[2][3][4][5] The techniques and nomenclature of cladistics have been applied to other disciplines
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Paleontology
Paleontology
Paleontology
or palaeontology (/ˌpeɪliɒnˈtɒlədʒi, ˌpæli-, -ən-/) is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene
Holocene
Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present). It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments (their paleoecology). Paleontological observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century BC. The science became established in the 18th century as a result of Georges Cuvier's work on comparative anatomy, and developed rapidly in the 19th century. The term itself originates from Greek παλαιός, palaios, "old, ancient", ὄν, on (gen
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Transitional Fossil
A transitional fossil is any fossilized remains of a life form that exhibits traits common to both an ancestral group and its derived descendant group.[1] This is especially important where the descendant group is sharply differentiated by gross anatomy and mode of living from the ancestral group. These fossils serve as a reminder that taxonomic divisions are human constructs that have been imposed in hindsight on a continuum of variation. Because of the incompleteness of the fossil record, there is usually no way to know exactly how close a transitional fossil is to the point of divergence. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that transitional fossils are direct ancestors of more recent groups, though they are frequently used as models for such ancestors.[2] In 1859, when Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species
On the Origin of Species
was first published, the fossil record was poorly known
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Precambrian
The Precambrian
Precambrian
(or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Cladistics
Cladistics
Cladistics
(from Greek κλάδος, klados, i.e., "branch")[1] is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor. Hypothesized relationships are typically based on shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies) that can be traced to the most recent common ancestor and are not present in more distant groups and ancestors. A key feature of a clade is that all descendants stay in their overarching ancestral clade. Radiation results in the generation of new subclades by bifurcation.[2][3][4][5] The techniques and nomenclature of cladistics have been applied to other disciplines
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Bone Tissue
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton. Bones support and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells, store minerals, provide structure and support for the body, and enable mobility. Bones come in a variety of shapes and sizes and have a complex internal and external structure. They are lightweight yet strong and hard, and serve multiple functions. Bone
Bone
tissue (osseous tissue) is a hard tissue, a type of dense connective tissue. It has a honeycomb-like matrix internally, which helps to give the bone rigidity. Bone
Bone
tissue is made up of different types of bone cells. Osteoblasts and osteocytes are involved in the formation and mineralization of bone; osteoclasts are involved in the resorption of bone tissue. Modified (flattened) osteoblasts become the lining cells that form a protective layer on the bone surface
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