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Oskar Lange
Oskar Ryszard Lange (27 July 1904 – 2 October 1965) was a Polish economist and diplomat. He is best known for advocating the use of market pricing tools in socialist systems and providing a model of market socialism.[3] During his stay in the United States, Lange was a sought-after academic teacher and researcher in mathematical economics. Later in communist Poland, he was a member of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party
Polish United Workers' Party
and a believer in centrally-managed economy.[4]Contents1 Career 2 Academic contributions 3 Bibliography 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksCareer[edit] Lange was born in Tomaszów Mazowiecki
Tomaszów Mazowiecki
as son of Arthur Julius Lange and Sophie Albertine Rosner
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Tomaszów Mazowiecki
Tomaszów Mazowiecki
Tomaszów Mazowiecki
pronounced [tɔˈmaʂuf mazɔˈvjɛt͡skʲi] is a medium-sized town in central Poland
Poland
with 63,601 inhabitants (2016).[2] It is situated in the Łódź Voivodeship
Łódź Voivodeship
(since 1999); previously, it was part of Piotrków Trybunalski Voivodeship (1975–1998)
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Socialism In One Country
Socialism
Socialism
in one country (Russian: социализм в одной стране, tr. sotsializm v odnoi strane) was a theory put forth by Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
and Nikolai Bukharin
Nikolai Bukharin
in 1924 which was eventually adopted by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as state policy.[1] The theory held that given the defeat of all the communist revolutions in Europe in 1917–1923 except Russia, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
should begin to strengthen itself internally. That turn toward national communism was a shift from the previously held position by classical Marxism
Marxism
that socialism must be established globally (world communism). However, the proponents of the theory contend that it contradicts neither world revolution nor world communism
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Congress Poland
The Kingdom of Poland,[1] informally known as Congress Poland[2] or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland
Poland
connected by personal union with the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
until 1832
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Input–output Model
In economics, an input–output model is a quantitative economic technique that represents the interdependencies between different branches of a national economy or different regional economies.[1] Wassily Leontief
Wassily Leontief
(1906–1999) is credited with developing this type of analysis and earned the Nobel Prize in Economics
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Internationalism (politics)
Internationalism is a political principle which transcends nationalism and advocates a greater political or economic cooperation among nations and people.[1] Supporters of this principle are referred to as internationalists, and generally believe that the people of the world should unite across national, political, cultural, racial, or class boundaries to advance their common interests, or that the governments of the world should cooperate because their mutual long-term interests are of greater importance than their short-term disputes.Contents1 Origins 2 Socialism2.1 The International Workingmen's Association 2.2 The Socialist
Socialist
International 2.3 The Communist International 2.4 The Fourth International3 Modern expression3.1 International organizations and internationalism 3.2 Sovereign nations vs
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Labor-time Calculation
A calculation is a deliberate process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more results, with variable change
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Labour Voucher
Labour vouchers (also known as labour cheques, labour certificates, and personal credit) are a device proposed to govern demand for goods in some models of socialism, unlike money does under capitalism.Contents1 Outline 2 History 3 Systems that advocate labour vouchers 4 Criticisms 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksOutline[edit] Unlike money, vouchers cannot circulate and are not transferable between people. They are also not exchangeable for any means of production hence they are not transmutable into Capital. Once a purchase is made the labour vouchers are either destroyed or must be re-earned through labour. Therefore, with such a system in place, monetary theft would become impossible. Such a system is proposed by many as a replacement for traditional money while retaining a system of remuneration for work done
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Material Balance Planning
Material balances are a method of economic planning where material supplies are accounted for in natural units (as opposed to using monetary accounting) and used to balance the supply of available inputs with targeted outputs
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Peer‑to‑peer Economics
Economics
Economics
(/ɛkəˈnɒmɪks, iːkə-/)[1][2][3] is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.[4] Economics
Economics
focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work. Microeconomics
Microeconomics
analyzes basic elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets, their interactions, and the outcomes of interactions. Individual agents may include, for example, households, firms, buyers, and sellers. Macroeconomics analyzes the entire economy (meaning aggregated production, consumption, savings, and investment) and issues affecting it, including unemployment of resources (labour, capital, and land), inflation, economic growth, and the public policies that address these issues (monetary, fiscal, and other policies)
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Sharing Economy
Sharing economy
Sharing economy
is an umbrella term with a range of meanings, often used to describe economic activity involving online transactions.[1] Originally growing out of the open-source community to refer to peer-to-peer based sharing of access to goods and services,[2] the term is now sometimes used in a broader sense to describe any sales transactions that are done via online market places, even ones that are business to business (B2B), rather than peer-to-peer. For this reason, the term sharing economy has been criticised as misleading, some arguing that even services that enable peer-to-peer exchange can be primarily profit-driven.[3] However, many commentators assert that the term is still valid as a means of describing a generally more democratized marketplace, even when it's applied to a broader spectrum of services
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State Ownership
State ownership
State ownership
(also called public ownership and government ownership) is the ownership of an industry, asset or enterprise by the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party.[1] Public ownership
Public ownership
specifically refers to industries selling goods and services to consumers and differs from public goods and government services financed out of a government’s general budget.[2] Public ownership
Public ownership
can take place at the national, regional, local or municipal levels of government; or can refer to non-governmental public ownership vested in autonomous public enterprises
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Equal Opportunity
Equal opportunity
Equal opportunity
arises from the similar treatment of all people, unhampered by artificial barriers or prejudices or preferences, except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified.[1] According to this often complex and contested concept,[2] the aim is that important jobs should go to those "most qualified" – persons most likely to perform ably in a given task – and not go to persons for arbitrary or irrelevant reasons, such as circumstances of birth, upbringing, having well-connected relatives or friends,[3] religion, sex,[4] ethnicity,[4] race, caste,[5] or involuntary per
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To Each According To His Contribution
"To each according to his contribution" is a principle of distribution considered to be one of the defining features of socialism
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From Each According To His Ability, To Each According To His Needs
"From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs" is a slogan popularised by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program.[1] The principle refers to free access and distribution of goods, capital and services.[2] In the Marxist view, such an arrangement will be made possible by the abundance of goods and services that a developed communist system will produce; the idea is that, with the full development of socialism and unfettered productive forces, there will be enough to satisfy everyone's needs.[3][4]Contents1 Origin of the phrase 2 Debates on the idea 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readi
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Workplace Democracy
Workplace democracy is the application of democracy in all its forms (including voting systems, debates, democratic structuring, due process, adversarial process, systems of appeal) to the workplace.[1]Contents1 History1.1 Associated with ideologies 1.2 Studies by management science 1.3 Early theory 1.4 Relation to political theory2 Current approaches2.1 Limits of management 2.2 Mondragon 2.3 Influenced matrix management 2.4 Semler and Semco 2.5 Venezuela3 Comparison to Taylorism 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Associated with ideologies[edit] These methods are often seen as associated with trade unions (or more lately eco-socialism)
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