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Osh Oblast
OSH REGION (Kyrgyz : Ош облусу, Oş oblusu/ Osh
Osh
oblusu, وش وبلاستى; Russian : Ошская область, Oshskaya oblast’/Ošskaja oblastj) is a region (oblast ) of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
. Its capital is Osh
Osh
. It is bounded by (clockwise) Jalal-Abad Region , Naryn Region , Xinjiang , China, Tajikistan , Batken Region , and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 2.1 Ethnic composition * 3 Districts * 4 Enclaves and exclaves * 5 See also * 6 References GEOGRAPHYMost of the population lives in the flat northern part of the Oblast, on the edge of the Ferghana Valley
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Kara-Suu
KARA-SUU (Kyrgyz for "black water") is a town in Osh Region
Osh Region
, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
, in the Fergana Valley
Fergana Valley
. The town is 23 km northeast of Osh
Osh
and is the capital of Kara-Suu District . It is a major industrial and trade center, on the border with Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
. On the other side of the border is the town Qorasuv (or Il'ichovsk). After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Uzbek authorities destroyed the main bridge across the river, but cross-border trade continued via improvised ropeways that ferried goods and people across
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Uzgen
UZGEN (Kyrgyz : Өзгөн Özgön; Russian : Узген) is a town in Osh Region
Osh Region
, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
. It is the capital of Uzgen District . According to 2009 Census the population of Uzgen
Uzgen
was 49,410. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 2.1 Climate * 3 Famous people * 4 References HISTORYThe town is mentioned in Chinese annals of the second century BC. It was one of the capitals of the Karakhanids , who called it MAVARANNAHR and left three well-preserved mausolea . Uzgend became the abode of Muhammad b. Nasr during the Kara-Khanid split into two branches. Accounts of Uzgend were found in the works of Arab writers like Al-Muqaddasi and Ibn Hawqal in the 10th century
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Urban-type Settlement
URBAN-TYPE SETTLEMENT (Russian : посёлок городско́го ти́па - posyolok gorodskogo tipa, abbreviated: п.г.т. - p.g.t.; Ukrainian : селище міського типу – selyshche mis'koho typu, abbreviated: с.м.т. - s.m.t.; Belarusian : пасёлак гарадскога тыпу; Polish : osiedle typu miejskiego; Bulgarian : селище от градски тип – selishte ot gradski tip) is an official designation for a semi-urban settlement (or a former town): * in the past – in the Soviet Union , Poland and Bulgaria * today – in 10 post-Soviet states.This type of locality has been used in all 15 member republics of the former Soviet Union since 1922 when it replaced a number of terms which could have been translated by the English term "town " (Russia – posad , Ukraine – mistechko, Belarus – miastechko (the latter two from Polish "miasteczko ", literally "small town") and others)
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Uzbeks
The UZBEKS (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group ; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia . They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
but are also found as a minority group in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, Tajikistan , Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
, Russia
Russia
and China
China
. Uzbek diaspora communities also exist in Turkey
Turkey
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, and Pakistan
Pakistan

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Kyrgyzs
The KYRGYZ PEOPLE (also spelled KYRGHYZ and KIRGHIZ) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Origins * 3 Genetics * 4 Political development * 5 Religion * 6 In Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* 7 In China
China
* 8 Notable Kyrgyz people
Kyrgyz people
* 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References and further reading * 12 External links ETYMOLOGYThere are several theories on the origin of ethnonym Kyrgyz. It is often said to be derived from the Turkic word kyrk ("forty"), with -iz being an old plural suffix, so Kyrgyz literally means "a collection of forty tribes"
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Nookat
NOOKAT (Kyrgyz : Ноокат), also Eski-Nookat, Iski-Naukat or Naukat, is a city in Osh Region of Kyrgyzstan . It is the seat of Nookat District . According to 2009 Census the population of Nookat was 14,371. The main street, Soltobaev, forms part of the main Osh-Batken highway and is consequently very dusty and busy, but nonetheless attractively lined by willow, poplar and plane trees. Nookat came to signify the repression during the Bakiyev regime as villagers were imprisoned, tortured and sentenced to lengthy prison terms following civil unrest in the fall of 2008. Following the revolt in April 2010, the villagers, of the Uzbek minority, were released
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Irkeshtam
ERKESHTAM, also IRKESHTAM or ERKESH-TAM (Chinese : 伊尔克什坦), is a border crossing between Kyrgyzstan and Xinjiang , China , named after a village on the Kyrgyz side of the border in southern Osh Region . The border crossing is also called Simuhana (斯姆哈纳), after the first settlement on the Chinese side of the border, but Irkeshtam is now the more common name used in both countries. Erkeshtam is the westernmost border crossing in China. It is one of two border crossings between Kyrgyzstan and China, the other being Torugart , some 165 km (103 mi) to the northeast. The overland travel distance from Erekshtam to Osh is 210 km (130 mi), about 800 km (500 mi) shorter than via the Torugart Border Crossing
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Kara Darya
The KARA DARYA (Kyrgyz : Кара-Дарыя, Qara-Darıya/Kara-Daryýa, قارا-دارىيا; Uzbek : Qoradaryo, Қорадарё, قارەدەريا - literally black river) or QARADARYO (Russian : Карадарья) is a tributary of the Syr Darya in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and eastern Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
. The river is formed by the confluence of Kara-Kulja River and Tar River . There are more than 200 known tributaries of Kara Darya; the largest are Jazy River , Kara Unkur River , Kegart River , Kurshab River , Abshir Sai River , and Aravan Sai River . Its length is 177 kilometres (110 mi), and watershed area 30,100 square kilometres (11,600 sq mi). The upper Kara Darya flows northwest across eastern Osh Province
Osh Province
southwest of and parallel to the Fergana Range
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Naryn River
The NARYN RIVER (Kyrgyz : Нарын, Russian : Нарын, Uzbek : Norin) rises in the Tian Shan mountains in Kyrgyzstan , Central Asia , flowing west through the Fergana Valley into Uzbekistan . Here it merges with the Kara Darya River (near Namangan ) to form the Syr Darya . It is 807 kilometres (501 mi) long (together with Chong-Naryn River ) and has an annual flow of 13.7 cubic kilometres (11,100,000 acre·ft). The largest tributaries of the Naryn River are: Kichi-Naryn River , At-Bashi River , On Archa River , Kadjyrty River , Chychkan River , Alabuga River , Kökömeren River etc. The river contains many reservoirs which are important in the generation of hydroelectricity . The largest of these is the Toktogul Reservoir in Kyrgyzstan containing 19.9 cubic kilometres (16,100,000 acre·ft) of water
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Syr Darya
The SYR DARYA /ˌsɪərˈdɑːrjə/ (Kazakh : Сырдария, Sırdarïya, سىردارٸيا; Russian : Сырдарья́, tr. Syrdarjja; IPA: ; Persian : Sirdarya سيردريا‎‎; Tajik : Сирдарё, Sirdaryo/Sirdarjo ; Turkish : Seyhun, Siri Derya; Arabic
Arabic
: سيحون‎‎: Seyhun; Uzbek : Sirdaryo/Сирдарё; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἰαξάρτης, Jaxartes) is a river in Central Asia . The Syr Darya
Syr Darya
originates in the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
Mountains in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and eastern Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and flows for 2,212 kilometres (1,374 mi) west and north-west through Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and southern Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
to the northern remnants of the Aral Sea
Aral Sea

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Sary-Tash
SARY-TASH is a village and major crossroads in the Alay Valley of Osh Region , Kyrgyzstan . Its population was 1,427 in 2009. Nearby towns and villages to the north include Ak-Bosogo (5 miles) and Chagyr (9 miles). Although this remote village has only some shop-cafes, a petrol station and five guest houses (March 2016), it is an important road junction connecting China, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Its name is derived from Turkic roots and means "yellow-stone". To the north, M41 goes over the Taldyk Pass to Gulcha and Osh in the Ferghana Valley . To the south, after leaving the Alay Valley the M41 rises to the 4280m Kyzylart Pass into Tajikistan as part of the Pamir Highway . 50 miles to the east on A371 is the Irkeshtam pass into Xinjiang , China . To the west, the A372 leads down the Alay Valley . The pass at the west end is a bilateral border crossing closed to foreigners
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Uygurs
The UYGHURS (/uːˈiːɡərz, ˈwiːɡərz/ ; Uyghur : ئۇيغۇر, Уйғур‎, ULY : Uyghur  ) are a Turkic ethnic group living in Eastern and Central Asia
Central Asia
. Today, Uyghurs
Uyghurs
live primarily in the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uyghur Autonomous Region in the People\'s Republic of China
China
, where they are one of 55 officially recognized ethnic minorities . They primarily practice Islam
Islam
, and are a physically diverse ethnic group ranging from Western Eurasian ( Europeans
Europeans
, Middle Eastern
Middle Eastern
) to a more East Asian
East Asian
appearance. An estimated 80% of Xinjiang's Uyghurs
Uyghurs
live in the southwestern portion of the region, the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin

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Turkish People
Turkey
Turkey
63,589,988–65,560,701 (2008 est
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Aravan District
ARAVAN is a raion (district) of Osh Region in south-western Kyrgyzstan . The capital lies at Aravan . Its area is 1,340 square kilometres (520 sq mi) (making it the smallest district in Osh Region), and its resident population was 106,134 in 2009. CONTENTS* 1 Demographics * 1.1 Ethnic composition * 1.2 Towns, rural communities, and villages * 2 References DEMOGRAPHICSAs of 2009, Aravan District contained 48 villages
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Kara-Suu District
KARA-SUU is a raion (district) of Osh Region in south-western Kyrgyzstan . Its area is 3,616 square kilometres (1,396 sq mi), and its resident population was 348,645 in 2009. The capital lies at Kara-Suu . TOWNS, RURAL COMMUNITIES, AND VILLAGESIn total, Kara-Suu District include 1 town and 16 rural communities (aiyl okmotus). Each rural community can consist of one or several villages
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