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Ornithopoda
ORNITHOPODS (/ɔːrˈnɪθəˌpɒdz, ˈɔːrnɪ-/ ) or members of the clade ORNITHOPODA (/ˌɔːrnɪˈθɒpədə/ or /ɔːrˌnɪθəˈpoʊdə, ˌɔːrnɪ-/ ) are a group of ornithischian dinosaurs that started out as small, bipedal running grazers, and grew in size and numbers until they became one of the most successful groups of herbivores in the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
world, and dominated the North American landscape. Their major evolutionary advantage was the progressive development of a chewing apparatus that became the most sophisticated ever developed by a non-avian dinosaur, rivaling that of modern mammals such as the domestic cow . They reached their apex in the duck-bills (hadrosaurs), before they were wiped out by the Cretaceous– Paleogene extinction event along with all other non-avian dinosaurs
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Southern Hemisphere
Coordinates : 90°0′0″S 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°S 0.00000°E / -90.00000; 0.00000 A photo of Earth
Earth
from Apollo 17 (Blue Marble ) originally had the south pole at the top; however, it was turned upside-down to fit the traditional perspective The Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
highlighted in yellow ( Antarctica
Antarctica
not depicted) The Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
from above the South Pole The SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE is the half sphere of Earth
Earth
which is south of the equator
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Middle Jurassic
The MIDDLE JURASSIC is the second epoch of the Jurassic
Jurassic
Period . It lasted from about 174 to 163 million years ago . In European lithostratigraphy , rocks of this Middle Jurassic
Jurassic
age are called the Dogger. This name in the past was also used to indicate the Middle Jurassic
Jurassic
epoch itself, but is discouraged by the IUGS , to distinguish between rock units and units of geological time. CONTENTS * 1 Paleogeography * 2 Life forms of the epoch * 2.1 Marine life * 2.2 Terrestrial life * 2.3 Flora * 3 References PALEOGEOGRAPHYDuring the Middle Jurassic
Jurassic
epoch, Pangaea
Pangaea
began to separate into Laurasia
Laurasia
and Gondwana
Gondwana
, and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
formed
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Toe
TOES are the digits of the foot of a tetrapod . Animal
Animal
species such as cats that walk on their toes are described as being digitigrade . Humans , and other animals that walk on the soles of their feet, are described as being plantigrade ; unguligrade animals are those that walk on hooves at the tips of their toes. CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Muscles * 1.2 Blood supply * 1.3 Nerve supply * 1.4 Variation * 2 Function * 3 Clinical relevance * 3.1 Deformity * 3.2 In reconstruction * 4 History * 4.1 Etymology * 4.1.1 Ta * 4.1.2 Hallux
Hallux
* 5 In other animals * 6 See also * 7 References STRUCTURE Bones of the right foot . Plantar
Plantar
surface. There are five toes present on each human foot. Each toe consists of three phalanx bones , the proximal, middle and distal , with the exception of the big toe ( Latin
Latin
: Hallux)
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Beak
The BEAK, BILL, or ROSTRUM is an external anatomical structure of birds that is used for eating and for preening , manipulating objects, killing prey, fighting, probing for food, courtship and feeding young. The terms beak and rostrum are also used to refer to a similar mouth part in some dicynodonts , Ornithischians , cephalopods , cetaceans , billfishes , pufferfishes , turtles , Anuran tadpoles and sirens . Although beaks vary significantly in size, shape, color and texture, they share a similar underlying structure. Two bony projections—the upper and lower mandibles—are covered with a thin keratinized layer of epidermis known as the rhamphotheca. In most species, two holes known as nares lead to the respiratory system
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Ilium (bone)
The ILIUM (/ˈɪliəm/ ) (plural ILIA) is the uppermost and largest part of the hip bone , and appears in most vertebrates including mammals and birds , but not bony fish . All reptiles have an ilium except snakes , although some snake species have a tiny bone which is considered to be an ilium. The ilium of the human is divisible into two parts, the body and the wing; the separation is indicated on the top surface by a curved line, the arcuate line, and on the external surface by the margin of the acetabulum . The name comes from the Latin
Latin
(ile, ilis), meaning "groin" or "flank." CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Development * 2 Clinical significance * 2.1 Biiliac width * 3 Other animals * 3.1 Dinosaurs * 4 History * 5 Additional images * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links STRUCTUREThe ilium consists of the body and wing
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Pubis (bone)
In vertebrates , the PUBIC BONE is the ventral and anterior of the three principal bones composing either half of the pelvis . CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Function * 3 In animals * 3.1 Dinosaurs * 3.2 Mammals * 4 Additional images * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links STRUCTUREIt is covered by a layer of fat , which is covered by the mons pubis . It is divisible into a body , a superior ramus and an inferior ramus . In the female, the pubic bone is anterior to the urethral sponge . The left and right hip bones join at the pubic symphysis . The pubis is the lower limit of the suprapubic region . FUNCTIONThe body forms one-fifth of the acetabulum , contributing by its external surface both to the lunate surface and the acetabular fossa. Its internal surface enters into the formation of the wall of the lesser pelvis and gives origin to a portion of the obturator internus
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Continent
A CONTINENT is one of several very large landmasses of the world . Generally identified by convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest in size to smallest, they are: Asia
Asia
, Africa
Africa
, North America , South America
South America
, Antarctica
Antarctica
, Europe
Europe
, and Australia
Australia
. Geologically the continents largely correspond to areas of continental crust that are found on the continental plates . However, some areas of continental crust are regions covered with water not usually included in the list of continents. The area referred to as Zealandia
Zealandia
is one such area (see submerged continents below)
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Aves
BIRDS (AVES) are a group of endothermic vertebrates , characterised by feathers , toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart , and a strong yet lightweight skeleton . Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich . They rank as the world’s most numerically-successful class of tetrapods , with approximately ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines , sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are more or less developed depending on the species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds . Wings, which evolved from forelimbs , gave birds the ability to fly , although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds , including ratites , penguins , and diverse endemic island species of birds
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Herbivore
A HERBIVORE is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material , for example foliage , for the main component of its diet. As a result of their plant diet, herbivorous animals typically have mouthparts adapted to rasping or grinding. Horses and other herbivores have wide flat teeth that are adapted to grinding grass , tree bark , and other tough plant material. A large percentage of herbivores have mutualistic gut flora that help them digest plant matter , which is more difficult to digest than animal prey. This gut flora is made up of cellulose-digesting protozoans or bacteria living in the herbivores' intestines
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Clade
A CLADE (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants , and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life ". The common ancestor may be an individual, a population , a species (extinct or extant ), and so on right up to a kingdom . Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms. Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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Bipedal
BIPEDALISM is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs . An animal or machine that usually moves in a BIPEDAL manner is known as a BIPED /ˈbaɪpɛd/ , meaning "two feet" (from the Latin
Latin
bis for "double" and pes for "foot"). Types of bipedal movement include walking , running , or hopping . Few modern species are habitual bipeds whose normal method of locomotion is two-legged. Within mammals , habitual bipedalism has evolved multiple times, with the macropods , kangaroo rats and mice , springhare , hopping mice , pangolins and homininan apes, as well as various other extinct groups evolving the trait independently
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North America
NORTH AMERICA is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas
Americas
. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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Mammal
MAMMALS are the vertebrates within the class MAMMALIA (/məˈmeɪliə/ from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds ) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair , three middle ear bones , and mammary glands . Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk , secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the largest animal on the planet, the blue whale . The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped , but some mammals are adapted for life at sea , in the air , in trees , underground or on two legs . The largest group of mammals, the placentals , have a placenta , which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale . With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young
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Cretaceous–Paleogene Extinction Event
The CRETACEOUS–PALEOGENE (K–PG) EXTINCTION EVENT, also known as the CRETACEOUS–TERTIARY (K–T) EXTINCTION, was a mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth
Earth
that occurred over a geologically short period of time approximately 66 million years ago. With the exception of some ectothermic species like the leatherback sea turtle and crocodiles , no tetrapods weighing more than 25 kilograms (55 lb) survived. It marked the end of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period and with it, the entire Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era, opening the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era that continues today. In the geologic record , the K–Pg event is marked by a thin layer of sediment called the K–Pg boundary , which can be found throughout the world in marine and terrestrial rocks
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