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Orlop
The orlop is the lowest deck in a ship (except for very old ships). It is the deck or part of a deck where the cables are stowed, usually below the water line.[1] It has been suggested the name originates from "overlooping" of the cables. It has also been suggested that the name is a corruption of "overlap", referring to an overlapping, balcony-like half deck occupying a portion of the ship's lowest deck space. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word descends from Dutch overloop from the verb overlopen, "to run (over); extend".[2] References[edit]^ Keegan, John (1989). The Price of Admiralty. New York: Viking. p. 279
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Ship
A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing. Historically, a "ship" was a sailing vessel with at least three square-rigged masts and a full bowsprit. Ships are generally distinguished from boats, based on size, shape, load capacity, and tradition. Ships have been important contributors to human migration and commerce. They have supported the spread of colonization and the slave trade, but have also served scientific, cultural, and humanitarian needs. After the 15th century, new crops that had come from and to the Americas via the European seafarers significantly contributed to the world population growth.[1] Ship transport
Ship transport
is responsible for the largest portion of world commerce. As of 2016, there were more than 49,000 merchant ships, totaling almost 1.8 billion dead weight tons
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Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world.[2][3] The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was not until 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society
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Dutch Language
 Aruba  Belgium  Curaçao  Netherlands  Sint Maarten  Suriname Benelux European Union South American Union CaricomRegulated by Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union)Language codesISO 639-1 nlISO 639-2 dut (B) nld (T)ISO 639-3 nld Dutch/FlemishGlottolog mode1257[4]Linguasphere 52-ACB-aDutch-speaking world (included are areas of daughter-language Afrikaans)Distribution of the Dutch language
Dutch language
and its dialects in Western EuropeThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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John Keegan
Sir John Desmond Patrick Keegan OBE FRSL (15 May 1934 – 2 August 2012) was an English military historian, lecturer, writer and journalist. He was the author of many published works on the nature of combat between the 14th and 21st centuries concerning land, air, maritime, and intelligence warfare, as well as the psychology of battle.Contents1 Life and career 2 Opinions on contemporary conflicts 3 Criticism 4 Honours 5 Published work 6 Works 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksLife and career[edit] At the age of 13 Keegan contracted orthopaedic tuberculosis, which subsequently affected his gait
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Bitts
Bitts
Bitts
are paired vertical wooden or iron posts mounted either aboard a ship or on a wharf, pier or quay. The posts are used to secure mooring lines, ropes, hawsers, or cables.[1] Bitts
Bitts
aboard wooden sailing ships (sometime called cable-bitts) were large vertical timbers mortised into the keel and used as the anchor cable attachment point.[2] Bitts are carefully manufactured and maintained to avoid any sharp edges which might chafe and weaken the mooring lines.[3] Use[edit] Mooring lines may be laid around the bitts either singly or in a figure-8 pattern with the friction against tension increasing with each successive turn
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Vasa (ship)
Vasa (or Wasa)[2] is a retired Swedish warship built between 1626 and 1628. The ship foundered after sailing about 1,300 m (1,400 yd) into its maiden voyage on 10 August 1628. It fell into obscurity after most of her valuable bronze cannon were salvaged in the 17th century until she was located again in the late 1950s in a busy shipping lane just outside the Stockholm
Stockholm
harbor. Salvaged with a largely intact hull in 1961, it was housed in a temporary museum called Wasavarvet ('The Wasa Shipyard') until 1988 and then moved permanently to the Vasa Museum
Vasa Museum
in Stockholm
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Keel
On boats and ships, the keel is either of two parts: a structural element that sometimes resembles a fin and protrudes below a boat along the central line, or a hydrodynamic element. These parts overlap. As the laying down of the keel is the initial step in the construction of a ship, in British and American shipbuilding traditions the construction is dated from this event. Only the ship's launching is considered more significant in its creation. The word can also be used as a synecdoche to refer to a complete boat, such as a keelboat.Contents1 History 2 Structural keels 3 Hydrodynamic keels3.1 Non-sailing keels 3.2 Sailboat
Sailboat
keels4 Etymology 5 See also 6 Notes 7 BibliographyHistory[edit] The adjustable centerboard keel traces its roots to the medieval Chinese Song dynasty. Many Song Chinese junk ships had a ballasted and bilge keel that consisted of wooden beams bound together with iron hoops
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Kelson
The kelson or keelson[1] is the member which, particularly in a wooden vessel, lies parallel with its keel but above the transverse members such as timbers, frames or in a larger vessel, floors. It is fastened to the keel partly to impart additional longitudinal stiffness to it but principally to bind the longitudinal members (keel and hog) to the transverse members (frames and floors). Overview[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)In an open boat it is often fastened to the keel and hog in such a way that it can be removed for maintenance. Again, it lies above the boat's frames or timbers as they cross the hog but in this instance, its main function is frequently to provide a means of holding down the bottom boards in such a way that they can easily be removed for maintenance
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Canting Keel
A canting keel is a form of sailing ballast, suspended from a rigid canting strut beneath the boat, which can be swung to windward of a boat under sail, in order to counteract the heeling force of the sail. The canting keel must be able to pivot to either port or starboard, depending on the current tack. Contents1 Purpose and history 2 Current use 3 Disadvantages 4 America's Cup 5 ReferencesPurpose and history[edit] The traditional yacht keel performs four functions:the development of lateral water force to resist lateral aerodynamic force from sails and superstructure, the physical housing of ballast load as low as possible, roll-damping to resist energy inputs from waves and disturbed water, and a contribution to directional stability.The traditional fin keel, pointing straight down from the boat, provides no righting moment when the boat is level
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Gunwale
The gunwale (/ˈɡʌnəl/) is the top edge of the side of a boat.[1] Originally the gunwale was the "gun ridge" on a sailing warship. This represented the strengthening wale or structural band added to the design of the ship, at and above the level of a gun deck. It was designed to accommodate the stresses imposed by the use of artillery. In wooden boats, the gunwale remained, mounted inboard of the sheer strake, regardless of the use of gunnery. In modern boats, it is the top edge of the side where there is usually some form of stiffening. On a canoe, the gunwale is typically the widened edge at the top of the side of the boat, where the edge is reinforced with wood, plastic or aluminum and to which the thwarts are attached. Modern cedar-strip canoes have gunwales which consist of inner and outer parts called "inwales" and "outwales". These two parts of the gunwale give rigidity and strength to the hull
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Jibboom
A jibboom (also spelt jib-boom) is a spar used to extend the length of a bowsprit on sailing ships.[1] It can itself be extended further by a flying jib-boom.[1] The heel (i.e. rear and lower) end of the flying jib-boom is attached to the jib-boom, and the heel of the jib-boom to the bowsprit. The point (i.e. higher and fore end) of the flying jib-boom is generally the fore-most extent of a ship. The jib- and flying jib- booms carry the tacks of the jib and flying jib sails, respectively, and the stay for the fore topgallant mast and the royal stay
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Jackline
A jackline is a rope or wire strung from a ship's bow to stern to which a safety harness can be clipped, allowing a crewmember to move about the deck safely when there is risk of falling or being swept overboard. At sea, falling overboard is one of the leading causes of death in boating;[1] fastening oneself to the ship with a safety harness reduces this risk.[2] Generally the jacklines are run from the bow to the stern on both starboard and the port side of a ship. Jack lines are used in heavy weather and in periods of reduced visibility, i.e. fog or at night. Jacklines may be rigged temporarily when bad weather is expected, or, especially on sailboats heading offshore, they may be left in place all the time and used as necessary. They are usually attached to strong padeye or cleat fittings at both ends of the boat, allowing the crewmember to move fore and aft by sliding their harness' clip along the line. Jacklines may be made of wire or low-stretch rope
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Hull (watercraft)
The hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat. Above the hull is the superstructure and/or deckhouse, where present. The line where the hull meets the water surface is called the waterline. The structure of the hull varies depending on the vessel type. In a typical modern steel ship, the structure consists of watertight and non-tight decks, major transverse and watertight (and also sometimes non-tight or longitudinal) members called bulkheads, intermediate members such as girders, stringers and webs, and minor members called ordinary transverse frames, frames, or longitudinals, depending on the structural arrangement. The uppermost continuous deck may be called the "upper deck", "weather deck", "spar deck", "main deck", or simply "deck". The particular name given depends on the context—the type of ship or boat, the arrangement, or even where it sails
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