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Origin Of Humanity
ANTHROPOGENY is the STUDY OF HUMAN ORIGINS. It is not simply a synonym for human evolution by natural selection , which is only a part of the processes involved in human origins. Many other factors besides biological evolution were involved, ranging over climatic, geographic, ecological, social, and cultural ones. Anthropogenesis , meaning the process or point of becoming human, is also called hominization . CONTENTS * 1 History of usage * 2 Anthropogeny vs. anthropogony vs
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Karoo Ice Age
The KAROO ICE AGE from 360–260 million years ago (Mya) was the second major ice age of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon . It is named after the tillite ( Dwyka Group ) found in the Karoo region of South Africa
South Africa
(and adjacent areas), where evidence for this ice age was first clearly identified in the 19th century
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Andean-Saharan Glaciation
The ANDEAN-SAHARAN GLACIATION occurred during the Paleozoic from 450 Ma to 420 Ma, during the late Ordovician
Ordovician
and the Silurian
Silurian
period. According to Eyles and Young, "A major glacial episode at c. 440 Ma , is recorded in Late Ordovician
Ordovician
strata (predominantly Ashgillian ) in West Africa ( Tamadjert Formation of the Sahara), in Morocco (Tindouf Basin ) and in west-central Saudi Arabia, all areas at polar latitudes at the time. From the Late Ordovician
Ordovician
to the Early Silurian
Silurian
the centre of glaciation moved from northern Africa to southwestern South America." During this period glaciation is known from Arabia, Sahara, West Africa, the south Amazon, and the Andes
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Quaternary Glaciation
The QUATERNARY GLACIATION, also known as the PLEISTOCENE GLACIATION or the CURRENT ICE AGE, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present. During this period, ice sheets expanded, notably from out of Antarctica
Antarctica
and Greenland
Greenland
, and fluctuating ice sheets occurred elsewhere (for example, the Laurentide ice sheet
Laurentide ice sheet
). The major effects of the ice age are erosion and deposition of material over large parts of the continents, modification of river systems , creation of millions of lakes , changes in sea level , development of pluvial lakes far from the ice margins, isostatic adjustment of the crust , and abnormal winds. It affected oceans, flooding , and biological communities. The ice sheets themselves, by raising the albedo , affect a major feedback on climate cooling
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Geologic Time Scale
The GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy ) to time. It is used by geologists , paleontologists , and other Earth
Earth
scientists to describe the timing and relationships of events that have occurred during Earth\'s history . The tables of geologic time spans, presented here, agree with the nomenclature , dates and standard color codes set forth by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS)
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Timeline Of Glaciation
There have been five known ice ages in the Earth's history, with the Earth experiencing the Quaternary Ice Age during the present time. Within ice ages, there exist periods of more severe glacial conditions and more temperate referred to as glacial periods and interglacial periods , respectively. The Earth is currently in such an interglacial period of the Quaternary Ice Age, with the last glacial period of the Quaternary having ended approximately 11,700 years ago with the start of the Holocene
Holocene
epoch. Based on climate proxies , paleoclimatologists study the different climate states originating from glaciation
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Cryogenian
The CRYOGENIAN ( /kraɪoʊˈdʒɛniən/ , from Greek κρύος (krýos), meaning "cold" and γένεσις (génesis), meaning "birth") is a geologic period that lasted from 720 to 635 million years ago . It forms the second geologic period of the Neoproterozoic Era , preceded by the Tonian Period and followed by the Ediacaran
Ediacaran
. The Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations occurred during the Cryogenian period, which are the greatest ice ages known to have occurred on Earth. These events are the subject of much scientific controversy . The main debate contests whether these glaciations covered the entire planet (the so-called " Snowball Earth ") or a band of open sea survived near the equator (termed "slushball Earth")
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Huronian Glaciation
The HURONIAN GLACIATION (or MAKGANYENE GLACIATION) was a glaciation that extended from 2.4 billion years ago (Ga) to 2.1 Ga, during the Siderian and Rhyacian periods of the Paleoproterozoic era. The Huronian glaciation followed after the Great Oxygenation Event
Great Oxygenation Event
(GOE), a time when increased atmospheric oxygen decreased atmospheric methane . The oxygen combined with the methane to form carbon dioxide and water, which does not retain heat as well as methane does. It is the oldest and longest ice age , occurring at a time when, in a biological sense, only simple, unicellular life existed on Earth. This ice age led to a mass-extinction on Earth
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Proterozoic
The PROTEROZOIC ( /ˌproʊtərəˈzoʊɪk, prɔː-, -trə-/ ) is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth
Earth
. The name Proterozoic
Proterozoic
comes from Greek and means "earlier life": the Greek root "protero-" means "former, earlier" and "zoic-" means "animal, living being". The Proterozoic Eon extended from 7016788940000000000♠2500 Ma to 7016170726616000000♠541 Ma (million years ago), and is the most recent part of the Precambrian
Precambrian
Supereon. It can be also described as the time range between the appearance of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere and the appearance of first complex life forms (like trilobites or corals ). It is subdivided into three geologic eras (from oldest to youngest): the Paleoproterozoic , Mesoproterozoic , and Neoproterozoic
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Archean
The ARCHEAN Eon ( /ɑːrˈkiːən/ , also spelled ARCHAEAN) is a geologic eon , 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago (4 to 2.5 billion years), that followed the Hadean
Hadean
Eon and preceded the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
Eon. During the Archean, the Earth's crust had cooled enough to allow the formation of continents. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and changes in classification * 2 Earth
Earth
at the beginning of the Archean
Archean
* 2.1 Palaeoenvironment * 3 Geology
Geology
* 4 Early life in the Archean
Archean
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGY AND CHANGES IN CLASSIFICATION Archean
Archean
(or Archaean) comes from the ancient Greek Αρχή (Arkhē), meaning "beginning, origin"
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Hadean
The HADEAN ( /ˈheɪdiən/ ) is a geologic eon of the Earth
Earth
predating the Archean
Archean
. It began with the formation of the Earth
Earth
about 4.6 billion years ago and ended, as defined by the ICS , 4 billion years ago. The geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label the period before the earliest-known rocks on Earth. W. Brian Harland later coined an almost synonymous term: the "PRISCOAN PERIOD". Other, older texts simply refer to the eon as the PRE-ARCHEAN. In 2015, traces of carbon minerals interpreted as "remains of biotic life " were found in 4.1-billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia
Western Australia
. Artist's impression of a Hadean
Hadean
landscape
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Mesoarchean
The MESOARCHEAN ( /ˌmiːzoʊ.ɑːrˈkiː.ən/ , also spelled MESOARCHAEAN) is a geologic era within the Archean
Archean
Eon , spanning 3,200 to 2,800 million years ago . The era is defined chronometrically and is not referenced to a specific level in a rock section on Earth. Fossils from Australia
Australia
show that stromatolites have lived on Earth since the Mesoarchean. The Pongola glaciation occurred around 2,900 million years ago . The first supercontinent Vaalbara broke up during this era about 2,800 million years ago . SEE ALSO * Geologic time scale
Geologic time scale
* Glacial period * Ice age
Ice age
* Last glacial period REFERENCES * ^ Robert E. Kopp; Joseph L. Kirschvink; Isaac A. Hilburn & Cody Z. Nash (2005)
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Robert Hooper (physician)
ROBERT HOOPER (1773–1835) was an English physician, known as a medical writer. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 References * 4 External links LIFEThe son of John Hooper of Marylebone
Marylebone
, he was born in London. After a course of medical study in London he was appointed apothecary to the Marylebone
Marylebone
workhouse infirmary. He entered Pembroke College, Oxford
Pembroke College, Oxford
, on 24 October 1796, graduated B.A. in 1803, M.A. and M.B. in 1804. He was prevented from proceeding to D.M. at the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
, but he was created M.D. of the University of St Andrews
University of St Andrews
on 16 December 1805, and admitted licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians
Royal College of Physicians
on 23 December 1805
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Ernst Heinrich Haeckel
ERNST HEINRICH PHILIPP AUGUST HAECKEL (German: ; 16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919 ) was a German biologist , naturalist , philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species , mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology , including anthropogeny , ecology , phylum , phylogeny , stem cell , and Protista
Protista
. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny , parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny
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Biological Anthropology
BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, also known as PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors. It is a subfield of anthropology that provides a biological perspective to the systematic study of human beings . CONTENTS * 1 Branches * 2 History * 3 Notable biological anthropologists * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links BRANCHESAs a subfield of anthropology, biological anthropology itself is further divided into several branches. All branches are united in their common application of evolutionary theory to understanding human morphology and behavior
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Cultural Anthropology
CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY is a branch of anthropology focused on the study of cultural variation among humans. It is in contrast to social anthropology , which perceives cultural variation as a subset of the anthropological constant. A variety of methods are involved in cultural anthropological, including participant observation (often called fieldwork because it requires the anthropologist spending an extended period of time at the research location), interviews , and surveys . Edward Burnett Tylor One of the earliest articulations of the anthropological meaning of the term "culture" came from Sir Edward Tylor who writes on the first page of his 1871 book: "Culture, or civilization, taken in its broad, ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." The term "civilization" later gave way to definitions given by V
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