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Organum
Organum[1] (/ˈɔːrɡənəm/) is, in general, a plainchant melody with at least one added voice to enhance the harmony, developed in the Middle Ages. Depending on the mode and form of the chant, a supporting bass line (or bourdon) may be sung on the same text, the melody may be followed in parallel motion (parallel organum), or a combination of both of these techniques may be employed. As no real independent second voice exists, this is a form of heterophony. In its earliest stages, organum involved two musical voices: a Gregorian chant
Gregorian chant
melody, and the same melody transposed by a consonant interval, usually a perfect fifth or fourth. In these cases the composition often began and ended on a unison, the added voice keeping to the initial tone until the first part has reached a fifth or fourth, from where both voices proceeded in parallel harmony, with the reverse process at the end
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Cantus Firmus
In music, a cantus firmus ("fixed song") is a pre-existing melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition. The plural of this Latin term is cantus firmi, although the corrupt form canti firmi (resulting from the grammatically incorrect treatment of cantus as a second- rather than a fourth-declension noun) can also be found
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Hucbald Of St. Amand
Hucbald (Hucbaldus, Hubaldus) (c. 840 or 850 – June 20, 930) was a Frankish music theorist, composer, teacher, writer, hagiographer, and Benedictine monk. Deeply influenced by Boethius' De Institutione Musica, he wrote the first systematic work on western music theory, aiming at reconciling through many notated examples ancient Greek music theory and the contemporary practice of the more recent so-called 'Gregorian chant'.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 Trivia 4 References 5 External linksLife[edit] Born in Northern France, about 850, his name reveals that he could have been closely related to the Carolingian dynasty (he was a familiar of Charles the Bald's court, to whom he dedicated poetical works and luxurious manuscripts). He studied at Elnone Abbey (later named Saint-Amand Abbey, after its 7th-century founder) where his uncle Milo was chief master of studies (scholasticus), in the diocese of Doornik
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University Of The Sorbonne
The University of Paris (French: Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (French: [sɔʁbɔn], one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, from 1806 to 1970. Emerging around 1150 as a corporation associated with the cathedral school of Notre Dame de Paris, it was considered the second-oldest university in Europe.[1] Officially chartered in 1200 by King Philip II (Philippe-Auguste) of France and recognised in 1215 by Pope Innocent III, it was later often nicknamed after its theological College of Sorbonne founded by Robert de Sorbon and chartered by French King Saint Louis around 1257.[citation needed] Internationally highly reputed for its academic performance in the humanities ever since the Middle Ages – notably in theology and philosophy – it introduced several academic standards and traditions that have endured ever since and spread internationally, such as doctoral degrees and student nations
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Limoges
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Limoges
Limoges
(/lɪˈmoʊʒ/;[1] French pronunciation: ​[limɔʒ];[1] Occitan: Lemòtges or Limòtges [liˈmɔdʒes]) is a city and commune, the capital of the Haute-Vienne
Haute-Vienne
department and was the administrative capital of the former Limousin
Limousin
region in west-central France. Limoges
Limoges
is known for its medieval and Renaissance enamels (Limoges enamels) on copper, for its 19th-century porcelain ( Limoges
Limoges
porcelain) and for its oak barrels which are used for Cognac and Bordeaux production
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Isochronous
A sequence of events is isochronous if the events occur regularly, or at equal time intervals. The term isochronous is used in several technical contexts, but usually refers to the primary subject maintaining a constant period or interval (the reciprocal of frequency), despite variations in other measurable factors in the same system
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Counterpoint
In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.[1] It has been most commonly identified in the European classical tradition, strongly developing during the Renaissance and in much of the common practice period, especially in the Baroque
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Guido Of Arezzo
Guido of Arezzo
Arezzo
(also Guido Aretinus, Guido Aretino, Guido da Arezzo, Guido Monaco, or Guido d'Arezzo, or Guy of Arezzo
Arezzo
also Guy d'Arezzo) (991/992 – after 1033) was an Italian music theorist of the Medieval era. He is regarded as the inventor of modern musical notation (staff notation) that replaced neumatic notation; his text, the Micrologus, was the second-most-widely distributed treatise on music in the Middle Ages (after the writings of Boethius).Contents1 Life 2 The Guidonian hand 3 Legacy 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksLife[edit] Guido was a Benedictine
Benedictine
monk from the Italian city-state of Arezzo. Recent research has dated his Micrologus to 1025 or 1026; since Guido stated in a letter that he was thirty-four when he wrote it,[1] his birthdate is presumed to be around 991 or 992
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Accidental (music)
In music, an accidental is a note of a pitch (or pitch class) that is not a member of the scale or mode indicated by the most recently applied key signature. In musical notation, the sharp (♯), flat (♭), and natural (♮) symbols, among others, mark such notes—and those symbols are also called accidentals. In the measure (bar) where it appears, an accidental sign raises or lowers the immediately following note (and any repetition of it in the bar) from its normal pitch, overriding sharps or flats (or their absence) in the key signature. A note is usually raised or lowered by a semitone, although microtonal music may use "fractional" accidental signs. There are occasionally double sharps or flats, which raise or lower the indicated note by a whole tone. Accidentals apply within the measure and octave in which they appear, unless canceled by another accidental sign, or tied into a following measure
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Kyrie
Kyrie, a transliteration of Greek Κύριε, vocative case of Κύριος (Kyrios), is a common name of an important prayer of Christian liturgy, also called the Kyrie
Kyrie
eleison /ˈkiːri.eɪ ɪˈleɪ.ɪsɒn/ (Ancient Greek: Κύριε, ἐλέησον, translit. Kýrie eléēson, lit. 'Lord, have mercy').[1]Contents1 In the New Testament 2 In Eastern Christianity 3 In Western Christianity3.1 Ky
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Tetrachord
In music theory, a tetrachord (Greek: τετράχορδoν, Latin: tetrachordum) is a series of four notes separated by three smaller intervals. In traditional music theory, a tetrachord always spanned the interval of a perfect fourth, a 4:3 frequency proportion—but in modern use it means any four-note segment of a scale or tone row, not necessarily related to a particular tuning system.Contents1 History1.1 Ancient Greek music theory 1.2 Pythagorean tunings2 Variations2.1 Romantic era 2.2 20th-century analysis 2.3 Atonal usage3 Non-Western scales3.1 Indian-specific tetrachord system 3.2 Persian4 Compositional forms 5 See also 6 Sources 7 Further readingHistory[edit] The name comes from tetra (from Greek—"four of something") and chord (from Greek chordon—"string" or "note")
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Hexachord
In music, a hexachord (also hexachordon) is a six-note series, as exhibited in a scale or tone row. The term was adopted in this sense during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and adapted in the 20th century in Milton Babbitt's serial theory
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Notre Dame Cathedral
Notre-Dame de Paris
Paris
(French: [nɔtʁə dam də paʁi] ( listen); meaning "Our Lady of Paris"), also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral
Cathedral
or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité
Île de la Cité
in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.[3] The cathedral is widely considered to be one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture, and it is among the largest and best-known church buildings in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in France, and in the world
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St. Augustine
Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
(/ɔːˈɡʌstɪn/; 13 November 354 – 28 August 430)[1] was an early Christian theologian
Christian theologian
and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity
Western Christianity
and Western philosophy. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius
Hippo Regius
in north Africa and is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers
Church Fathers
in Western Christianity
Christianity
for his writings in the Patristic Era. Among his most important works are The City of God, On Christian Doctrine
On Christian Doctrine
and Confessions. According to his contemporary Jerome, Augustine "established anew the ancient Faith".[note 1] In his youth he was drawn to Manichaeism, later to neo-Platonism
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Cathedral
A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop,[1] thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.[2] The counterpart term for such a church in German is Dom from Latin
Latin
domus ecclesiae or domus episcopalis; also Italian Duomo, Dutch Domkerk and cognates in many other European languages
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Liturgy
Liturgy
Liturgy
is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy is a communal response to and participation in, the sacred through activity reflecting praise, thanksgiving, supplication or repentance. Ritualization may be associated with life events such as birth, coming of age, marriage, sex and death. It thus forms the basis for establishing a relationship with a divine agency, as well as with other participants in the liturgy. Methods of dress, preparation of food, application of cosmetics or other hygienic practices are all considered liturgical activities. Technically speaking, liturgy is a subset of ritual. When ritual is undertaken to participate in a divine act or assist a divine action, it is liturgy. If the ritual does not have this purpose it is not liturgy but only ritual
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