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Orfila
MATHIEU JOSEPH BONAVENTURE ORFILA (Catalan : Mateu Josep Bonaventura Orfila i Rotger) (24 April 1787 – 12 March 1853) was a Menorcan -born French toxicologist and chemist , the founder of the science of toxicology . ROLE IN FORENSIC TOXICOLOGYIf there is reason to believe that a murder or attempted murder may have been committed using poison, a forensic toxicologist is often brought in to examine pieces of evidence such as corpses and food items for poison content. In Orfila's time the primary type of poison in use was arsenic , but there were no reliable ways of testing for its presence. Orfila created new techniques and refined existing techniques in his first treatise, Traité des poisons, greatly enhancing their accuracy. In 1840, Marie LaFarge was tried for the murder of her husband using arsenic. Mysteriously, although arsenic was available to the killer and was found in the food, none could be found in the body
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Public Domain
The legal term PUBLIC DOMAIN refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable. For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven , and most of the early silent films , are all now in the public domain by either being created before copyrights existed or by their copyright term expiring. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the public domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics , cooking recipes , and all software before 1974. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of cryptographic algorithms , NIH 's ImageJ , and the CIA
CIA
's World Factbook
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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
The ENCYCLOPæDIA BRITANNICA ELEVENTH EDITION (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia is now in the public domain , but the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Tens of thousands of its articles were copied directly into , where they still can be found
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Arsenic
ARSENIC is a chemical element with symbol AS and atomic number 33. Arsenic
Arsenic
occurs in many minerals , usually in combination with sulfur and metals , but also as a pure elemental crystal . Arsenic
Arsenic
is a metalloid . It has various allotropes , but only the gray form is important to industry. The primary use of metallic arsenic is in alloys of lead (for example, in car batteries and ammunition ). Arsenic
Arsenic
is a common n-type dopant in semiconductor electronic devices, and the optoelectronic compound gallium arsenide is the second most commonly used semiconductor after doped silicon . Arsenic
Arsenic
and its compounds, especially the trioxide, are used in the production of pesticides , treated wood products, herbicides , and insecticides . These applications are declining, however. A few species of bacteria are able to use arsenic compounds as respiratory metabolites
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Library Of Congress Control Number
The LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONTROL NUMBER (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Classification . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Format * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe LCCN numbering system has been in use since 1898, at which time the acronym LCCN originally stood for Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Card Number. It has also been called the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Catalog Card Number, among other names. The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
prepared cards of bibliographic information for their library catalog and would sell duplicate sets of the cards to other libraries for use in their catalogs
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International Standard Name Identifier
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD NAME IDENTIFIER (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks. It was developed under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as Draft International Standard 27729; the valid standard was published on 15 March 2012. The ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9 ( TC 46/SC 9 ) is responsible for the development of the standard. ISNI can be used to disambiguate names that might otherwise be confused, and links the data about names that are collected and used in all sectors of the media industries
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Biblioteca Nacional De España
The BIBLIOTECA NACIONAL DE ESPAñA (National Library of Spain) is a major public library , the largest in Spain, and one of the largest in the world. It is located in Madrid
Madrid
, on the Paseo de Recoletos . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 The library today * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links * 6 Images HISTORYThe library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library (Biblioteca Pública de Palacio). The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain
Spain
to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance (Ministerio de la Gobernación). At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional
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SNAC
SNAC, or SOCIAL NETWORKS AND ARCHIVAL CONTEXT, is an online effort for discovering, locating, and using distributed historical records started by a collaboration of United States-based organizations. It was established in 2010, with funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), California Digital Library (CDL), Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities (IATH) at the University of Virginia and the University of California, Berkeley School of Information . SEE ALSO * Archival Resource Key (ARK)REFERENCES * ^ Ferriero, David (2015-08-18). "Introducing SNAC". National Archives - AOTUS blog. Retrieved 2017-05-08. * ^ "SNAC: Social Networks and Archival Context". socialarchive.iath.virginia.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-08. * ^ Larson, Ray R.; Pitti, Daniel; Turner, Adrian (2014)
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Base Léonore
BASE LéONORE, or the LéONORE DATABASE, is a French database that lists the records of the members of the National Order of the Legion of Honor . The database lists the records of those inducted into the Legion of Honor since its 1802 inception and died before 1977. As of January 2014 , the database contained 390,000 records. REFERENCES * ^ "Présentation de la base de données Léonore" (in French). Paris: Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. 13 November 2014. Archived from the original on 16 March 2016. * ^ "Léonore" (in French). Paris: Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. 1 January 2014
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Bibliothèque Nationale De France
The BIBLIOTHèQUE NATIONALE DE FRANCE (BNF; French: ) is the National Library of France
France
, located in Paris
Paris
. It is the national repository of all that is published in France. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 New buildings * 3 Mission * 4 Manuscript
Manuscript
collection * 5 Digital library * 6 Popular culture * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links HISTORYThe National Library of France
France
traces its origin to the royal library founded at the Louvre Palace by Charles V in 1368. Charles had received a collection of manuscripts from his predecessor, John II , and transferred them to the Louvre
Louvre
from the Palais de la Cité
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Système Universitaire De Documentation
The SYSTèME UNIVERSITAIRE DE DOCUMENTATION or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify, track and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers
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Forensic
FORENSIC SCIENCE is the application of science to criminal and civil laws , mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation , as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure . Forensic scientists collect, preserve, and analyze scientific evidence during the course of an investigation. While some forensic scientists travel to the scene of the crime to collect the evidence themselves, others occupy a laboratory role, performing analysis on objects brought to them by other individuals. In addition to their laboratory role, forensic scientists testify as expert witnesses in both criminal and civil cases and can work for either the prosecution or the defense. While any field could technically be forensic, certain sections have developed over time to encompass the majority of forensically related cases
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Chemist
A CHEMIST (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy + -ist; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista ) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry . Chemists study the composition of matter and its properties. Chemists carefully describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms . Chemists carefully measure substance proportions, reaction rates, and other chemical properties . The word 'chemist' is also used to address Pharmacists in Commonwealth English. Chemists use this knowledge to learn the composition, and properties of unfamiliar substances, as well as to reproduce and synthesize large quantities of useful naturally occurring substances and create new artificial substances and useful processes. Chemists may specialize in any number of subdisciplines of chemistry . Materials scientists and metallurgists share much of the same education and skills with chemists
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Second French Empire
The SECOND FRENCH EMPIRE (French: Deuxième Empire
Empire
français) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III
Napoleon III
from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic , in France
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