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Orangutan
Pongo pygmaeus Pongo abelii Pongo tapanuliensis Pongo hooijeri†Range of the three extant speciesSynonymsFaunus Oken, 1816 Lophotus Fischer, 1813 Macrobates Billberg, 1828 Satyrus Lesson, 1840The orangutans (also spelled orang-utan, orangutang, or orang-utang)[1] are three extant species of great apes native to Indonesia
Indonesia
and Malaysia. Orangutans are currently only found in the rainforests of Borneo
Borneo
and Sumatra. Classified in the genus Pongo, orangutans were originally considered to be one species. From 1996, they were divided into two species: the Bornean orangutan
Bornean orangutan
(P. pygmaeus, with three subspecies) and the Sumatran orangutan
Sumatran orangutan
(P. abelii). In November 2017 it was reported that a third species had been identified, the Tapanuli orangutan
Tapanuli orangutan
(P
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Critically Endangered
A critically endangered (CR) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN) as facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.[1] As of 2014, there are 2464 animal and 2104 plant species with this assessment, compared with 1998 levels of 854 and 909, respectively.[2] As the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
does not consider a species extinct until extensive, targeted surveys have been conducted, species which are possibly extinct are still listed as critically endangered
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Rainforest
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between 250 and 450 centimetres (98 and 177 in),[1] and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests
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Borneo
Borneo
Borneo
(/ˈbɔːrnioʊ/; Malay: Pulau Borneo, Indonesian: Kalimantan) is the third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.[note 1] At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java, west of Sulawesi, and east of Sumatra. The island is politically divided among three countries: Malaysia
Malaysia
and Brunei
Brunei
in the north, and Indonesia
Indonesia
to the south.[1] Approximately 73% of the island is Indonesian territory. In the north, the East Malaysian states of Sabah
Sabah
and Sarawak
Sarawak
make up about 26% of the island. Additionally, the Malaysian federal territory of Labuan
Labuan
is situated on a small island just off the coast of Borneo
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Sumatra
Sumatra
Sumatra
is a large island in western Indonesia
Indonesia
that is part of the Sunda Islands. It is the largest island that is located entirely in Indonesia
Indonesia
(after Borneo, which is shared between Indonesia
Indonesia
and other countries) and the sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2 (not including adjacent islands such as the Riau Islands and Bangka Belitung Islands). Sumatra
Sumatra
is an elongated landmass spanning a diagonal northwest-southeast axis. The Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
borders the west, northwest, and southwest coasts of Sumatra
Sumatra
with the island chain of Simeulue, Nias
Nias
and Mentawai off the western coast
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Mya (unit)
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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Evolutionary Theory
Evolution
Evolution
is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.[1][2] Evolutionary processes give rise to biodiversity at every level of biological organisation, including the levels of species, individual organisms, and molecules.[3] Repeated formation of new species (speciation), change within species (anagenesis), and loss of species (extinction) throughout the evolutionary history of life on Earth are demonstrated by shared sets of morphological and biochemical traits, including shared DNA sequences.[4] These shared traits are more similar among species that share a more recent common ancestor, and can be used to reconstruct a biological "tree of life" based on evolutionary relationships (phylogenetics), using both existing species and fossils
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Exotic Pet
An exotic pet is a rare or unusual animal pet, or an animal kept within human households which is generally thought of as a wild species not typically kept as a pet.Contents1 Definition 2 Animals kept as exotic pets 3 Issues3.1 Legality 3.2 Trafficking 3.3 Impact on the world 3.4 Health 3.5 Husbandry 3.6 Risk to humans 3.7 Primates4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDefinition[edit] Commonly, the definition is an evolving one; some rodents, reptiles, and amphibians have become firmly enough established in the world of animal fancy to no longer be considered exotic.[citation needed] Sometimes any unique or wild-looking pet (including common domestic animals such as the ferret and the fancy rat) is called an exotic pet. "Exotic" generally refers to a species which is not native or indigenous to the owner's locale, and "pet" is a companion animal living with people.[1] However, many use the term to include native species as well.[citation needed] The
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Malay Language
Latin (Malay alphabet) Arabic script
Arabic script
(Jawi alphabet)[3] Thai alphabet
Thai alphabet
(in Thailand) Malay Braille Historically Pallava alphabet, Kawi alphabet, Rencong alphabetSigned formsManually Coded Malay Sistem Isyarat Bahasa IndonesiaOfficial status
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Indonesian Language
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia
[baˈhasa indoneˈsia]) is the official language of Indonesia. It is a standardized register of Malay, an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the multilingual Indonesian archipelago
Indonesian archipelago
for centuries. Indonesia
Indonesia
is the fourth most populous nation in the world
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Banjar Language
Banjar (Banjar: Bahasa/Basa Banjar, Indonesian: Bahasa Banjar, Jawi: بهاس بنجر) is an Austronesian language spoken by the Banjar people of South Kalimantan
South Kalimantan
province of Indonesia
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Cretinism
Cretinism
Cretinism
is a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth owing to untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormone (congenital hypothyroidism) usually owing to maternal hypothyroidism.Contents1 Cause 2 Pathophysiology 3 Treatment 4 History 5 Etymology 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksCause[edit]Disability-adjusted life years (DALY) lost from iodine deficiency in 2012 per million persons.  52-163   181-217   221-221   222-310   320-505   512-610   626-626   653-976   984-1,242   1,251-3,159Around the world, the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism is iodine deficiency. Cretinism
Cretinism
is therefore most probably due to a diet deficient in iodine
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Nicolaes Tulp
Nicolaes Tulp
Nicolaes Tulp
(9 October 1593 – 12 September 1674) was a Dutch surgeon and mayor of Amsterdam. Tulp was well known for his upstanding moral character[1] and as the subject of Rembrandt's famous painting The Anatomy
Anatomy
Lesson of Dr Nicolaes Tulp.Contents1 Life 2 Career as a physician2.1 Rembrandt's painting 2.2 "The Book of Monsters"3 Public office 4 Legacy and death 5 References 6 External linksLife[edit] Born Claes Pieterszoon, he was the son of a prosperous merchant active in civic affairs in Amsterdam. From 1611 to 1614 he studied medicine in Leiden. When he returned to Amsterdam
Amsterdam
he became a respected doctor and in 1617 he married Aagfe Van der Voegh. An ambitious young man, he adopted the tulip as his heraldric emblem and changed his name to Nicolaes (a more proper version of the name Claes) Tulp
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