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Optical Fiber
An optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.[1] Optical fibers are used most often as a means to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber and find wide usage in fiber-optic communications, where they permit transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than wire cables
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Perpendicular
In elementary geometry, the property of being perpendicular (perpendicularity) is the relationship between two lines which meet at a right angle (90 degrees). The property extends to other related geometric objects. A line is said to be perpendicular to another line if the two lines intersect at a right angle.[2] Explicitly, a first line is perpendicular to a second line if (1) the two lines meet; and (2) at the point of intersection the straight angle on one side of the first line is cut by the second line into two congruent angles. Perpendicularity can be shown to be symmetric, meaning if a first line is perpendicular to a second line, then the second line is also perpendicular to the first. For this reason, we may speak of two lines as being perpendicular (to each other) without specifying an order. Perpendicularity easily extends to segments and rays
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Imperial College
Imperial College London
London
is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom. Its founder, Prince Albert, envisioned an area composed of the Victoria and Albert Museum, Natural History Museum, Royal Albert Hall, and the Imperial Institute.[6][7] His wife, Queen Victoria, laid the foundation stone for the Imperial Institute
Imperial Institute
in 1888.[8] Imperial College London
London
was granted royal charter in 1907. In the same year, the college joined the University of London, before leaving it a century later.[9] The Imperial College School of Medicine was formed in 1988 by merging with St Mary's Hospital Medical School, and then in 1997 with Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School. In 2004, Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II
opened the Imperial College Business School.[8] The main campus is located in South Kensington, with a new innovation campus in White City
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Harold Hopkins (physicist)
Harold Horace Hopkins FRS[1] (6 December 1918 – 22 October 1994)[2] was a British physicist. His Wave Theory of Aberrations, (published by Oxford University Press 1950), is central to all modern optical design and provides the mathematical analysis which enables the use of computers to create the wealth of high quality lenses available today. In addition to his theoretical work, his many inventions are in daily use throughout the world.[3] These include zoom lenses, coherent fibre-optics and more recently the rod-lens endoscopes which 'opened the door' to modern key-hole surgery. He was the recipient of many of the world's most prestigious awards and was twice nominated for a Nobel Prize
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Clarence Hansell
Clarence Weston Hansell (January 20, 1898 – c. 1967) was an American research engineer who pioneered investigation into the biological effects of ion air. He was granted over 300 US patents, including, in the 1930s, a precursor to the modern ink jet printer that could print 750 words a minute, its data received via radio telegraph. Only Thomas Edison held more patents.Contents1 Life and education 2 Career 3 References3.1 On the biological and mood-altering effects of negative ions4 External linksLife and education[edit] Hansell was born in Medaryville, Indiana on January 20, 1898. He graduated from Purdue University with a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering in 1919
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Jacques Babinet
Jacques Babinet (French: [babinɛ]; 5 March 1794 – 21 October 1872) was a French physicist, mathematician, and astronomer who is best known for his contributions to optics.Contents1 Biography 2 References 3 Further reading 4 External linksBiography[edit] His father was Jean Babinet and mother, Marie‐Anne Félicité Bonneau du Chesn.[1] Babinet started his studies at the Lycée Napoléon, but was persuaded to abandon a legal education for the pursuit of science. A graduate of the École Polytechnique, which he left in 1812 for the Military School at Metz, he was later a professor at the Sorbonne and at the Collège de France. In 1840, he was elected as a member of the Académie Royale des Sciences
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Paris
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Paris
Paris
(French pronunciation: ​[paʁi] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city in France, with an administrative-limits area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and an official population of 2,206,488 (2015).[5] The city is a commune and department, and the heart of the 12,012-square-kilometre (4,638-square-mile) Île-de-
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Illumination (lighting)
Lighting
Lighting
or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect. Lighting
Lighting
includes the use of both artificial light sources like lamps and light fixtures, as well as natural illumination by capturing daylight. Daylighting
Daylighting
(using windows, skylights, or light shelves) is sometimes used as the main source of light during daytime in buildings. This can save energy in place of using artificial lighting, which represents a major component of energy consumption in buildings. Proper lighting can enhance task performance, improve the appearance of an area, or have positive psychological effects on occupants. Indoor lighting is usually accomplished using light fixtures, and is a key part of interior design
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Electromagnetic Interference
Electromagnetic interference
Electromagnetic interference
(EMI), also called radio-frequency interference (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.[1] The disturbance may degrade the performance of the circuit or even stop it from functioning. In the case of a data path, these effects can range from an increase in error rate to a total loss of the data.[2] Both man-made and natural sources generate changing electrical currents and voltages that can cause EMI: ignition systems, cellular network of mobile phones, lightning, solar flares, and auroras (Northern/Southern Lights)
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John Tyndall
John Tyndall
John Tyndall
FRS (2 August 1820 – 4 December 1893) was a prominent 19th-century Irish physicist. His initial scientific fame arose in the 1850s from his study of diamagnetism. Later he made discoveries in the realms of infrared radiation and the physical properties of air. Tyndall also published more than a dozen science books which brought state-of-the-art 19th century experimental physics to a wide audience. From 1853 to 1887 he was professor of physics at the Royal Institution of Great Britain in London.Contents1 Early years and education 2 Early scientific work 3 Main scientific work3.1 Molecular physics of radiant heat4 Alpine mountaineering and glaciology 5 Educator 6 Demarcation of science from religion 7 Private life 8 Death 9 John Tyndall's books 10 See also 11 Notes 12 Sources12.1 Biographies of John Tyndall13 External linksEarly years and education[edit] Tyndall was born in Leighlinbridge, County Carlow, Ireland
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Metal
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal"[1][2]) is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity. Metals are generally malleable—that is, they can be hammered or pressed permanently out of shape without breaking or cracking—as well as fusible (able to be fused or melted) and ductile (able to be drawn out into a thin wire).[3] Around 90 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals; the others are nonmetals or metalloids, though elements near the boundaries of each category have been assigned variably to either (hence the lack of an exact count). Some elements appear in both metallic and non-metallic forms. Astrophysicists use the term "metal" to refer collectively to all elements in a star that are heavier than the lightest two, hydrogen and helium, and not just traditional metals
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University Of Michigan
The University of Michigan
Michigan
(UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The University of Michigan
Michigan
is the state's oldest university, founded in 1817 in Detroit, Michigan
Michigan
as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, 20 years before the Michigan
Michigan
Territory became a state. It moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres (16 ha) of what is now known as Central Campus. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet (780 acres; 3.2 km2) spread out over a Central Campus and North Campus, two regional campuses in Flint and Dearborn, and a Center in Detroit
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Hair's Breadth
A hair's breadth, or the width of human hair, is used as an informal unit of a very short length.[1] It connotes "a very small margin" or the narrowest degree in many contexts.[2][3][4] A "hair's breadth" was, and still is, informally, a very small measurement.[5][6][7]Contents1 Definitions 2 Other body part measurements 3 See also 4 References4.1 Notes 4.2 Citations 4.3 SourcesDefinitions[edit]Look up by a hair's breadth, hair, or red cunt hair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.This measurement is not a precise one. Human hair varies in diameter, ranging anywhere from 30 μm to 100 μm. One nominal value often chosen is 75 μm,[5] but this – like other measures based upon such highly variant natural objects, including the barleycorn[8] – is subject to a fair degree of imprecision.[5][7] Such measures can be found in many cultures. The English "hair's breadth"[6] has a direct analogue in the formal Burmese system of Long Measure
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London
London
London
(/ˈlʌndən/ ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom.[7][8] Standing on the River Thames
River Thames
in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium.[9] London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries
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Manfred Börner
Manfred Börner (16 March 1929 in Rochlitz – 15 January 1996 in Ulm) was a German physicist.Contents1 Life 2 Awards and memberships 3 External links 4 ReferencesLife[edit] Börner developed the first working fiber-optical data transmission system in 1965. He received a patent for an "electro-optical transmission system utilizing lasers".[1][2] From 1954 to 1979 he worked for the German Telefunken GmbH
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