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Optical Fiber
An OPTICAL FIBER or OPTICAL FIBRE is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica ) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair . Optical fibers are used most often as a means to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber and find wide usage in fiber-optic communications , where they permit transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than wire cables. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss ; in addition, fibers are immune to electromagnetic interference , a problem from which metal wires suffer excessively. Fibers are also used for illumination , and are wrapped in bundles so that they may be used to carry images, thus allowing viewing in confined spaces, as in the case of a fiberscope . Specially designed fibers are also used for a variety of other applications, some of them being fiber optic sensors and fiber lasers
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Harold Hopkins (physicist)
HAROLD HORACE HOPKINS FRS (6 December 1918 – 22 October 1994) was a British physicist . His Wave Theory of Aberrations, (published by Oxford University Press 1950), is central to all modern optical design and provides the mathematical analysis which enables the use of computers to create the wealth of high quality lenses available today. In addition to his theoretical work, his many inventions are in daily use throughout the world. These include zoom lenses, coherent fibre-optics and more recently the rod-lens endoscopes which 'opened the door' to modern key-hole surgery. He was the recipient of many of the world's most prestigious awards and was twice nominated for a Nobel Prize
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Fiberscope
A FIBERSCOPE is a flexible fiber-optic bundle with an eyepiece on one end and a lens on the other that is used to examine and inspect small, difficult-to-reach places such as the insides of machines, locks, and the human body. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Optics * 2.1 Total internal reflection
Total internal reflection
* 3 Components * 4 Medical applications * 5 Other applications * 6 In popular media * 7 See also * 8 References HISTORYGuiding of light by refraction, the principle that makes fiber optics possible, was first demonstrated by Daniel Colladon and Jacques Babinet in Paris
Paris
in the early 1840s. Then in 1930, Heinrich Lamm , a German medical student, became the first person to put together a bundle of optical fibers to carry an image. These discoveries led to the invention of endoscopes and fiberscopes
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Illumination (lighting)
LIGHTING or ILLUMINATION is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect. Lighting includes the use of both artificial light sources like lamps and light fixtures, as well as natural illumination by capturing daylight . Daylighting (using windows, skylights, or light shelves) is sometimes used as the main source of light during daytime in buildings. This can save energy in place of using artificial lighting, which represents a major component of energy consumption in buildings. Proper lighting can enhance task performance, improve the appearance of an area, or have positive psychological effects on occupants. Indoor lighting is usually accomplished using light fixtures , and is a key part of interior design . Lighting can also be an intrinsic component of landscape projects
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Electromagnetic Interference
ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE (EMI), also called RADIO-FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction. The disturbance may degrade the performance of the circuit or even stop it from functioning. In the case of a data path, these effects can range from an increase in error rate to a total loss of the data. Both man-made and natural sources generate changing electrical currents and voltages that can cause EMI: automobile ignition systems, mobile phones, thunderstorms, the Sun
Sun
, and the Northern Lights . EMI frequently affects AM radios . It can also affect mobile phones , FM radios , and televisions , as well as observations for radio astronomy . EMI can be used intentionally for radio jamming , as in electronic warfare
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Telefunken
TELEFUNKEN was a German radio and television apparatus company, founded in Berlin in 1903, as a joint venture of Siemens * Gesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie m.b.H. , System Telefunken, founded 1903 in Berlin as a subsidiary of AEG
AEG
and Siemens * Telefunken, Gesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie m.b.H
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Physicist
A PHYSICIST is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics , the exploration of the interactions of matter and energy across the physical universe. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Education * 3.1 Honors and awards * 4 Careers * 5 Professional Certification * 5.1 United Kingdom * 5.2 Canada * 5.3 South Africa * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links OVERVIEWA physicist is a scientist who specializes or works in the field of physics. The field generally includes two types of physicists: experimental physicists who are concerned with the observation of physical phenomena and experiments, and theoretical physicists who employ mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena
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Perpendicular
In elementary geometry , the property of being PERPENDICULAR (PERPENDICULARITY) is the relationship between two lines which meet at a right angle (90 degrees ). The property extends to other related geometric objects . A line is said to be perpendicular to another line if the two lines intersect at a right angle. Explicitly, a first line is perpendicular to a second line if (1) the two lines meet; and (2) at the point of intersection the straight angle on one side of the first line is cut by the second line into two congruent angles . Perpendicularity can be shown to be symmetric , meaning if a first line is perpendicular to a second line, then the second line is also perpendicular to the first. For this reason, we may speak of two lines as being perpendicular (to each other) without specifying an order. Perpendicularity easily extends to segments and rays
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Manfred Börner
MANFRED BöRNER (16 March 1929 in Rochlitz – 15 January 1996 in Ulm ) was a German physicist . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Awards and memberships * 3 External links * 4 References LIFEBörner developed the first working fiber-optical data transmission system in 1965. He received a patent for an "electro-optical transmission system utilizing lasers". From 1954 to 1979 he worked for the German Telefunken GmbH . Later, from 1979 to 1995, he was professor at the Technical University Munich
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Indian People
INDIANS are the people who are the nationals or citizens of India
India
, the second most populous nation containing 17.50% of the world's population. "Indian" refers to nationality, but not ethnicity or language. The Indian nationality consists of many regional ethno-linguistic groups , reflecting the rich and complex history of India
India
. India
India
hosts all major ethnic groups found in the Indian Subcontinent . The diaspora populations with Indian ancestry , as a result of emigration , are somewhat widespread most notably in Asia and North America
North America

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London
LONDON (/ˈlʌndən/ ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London
London
has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it Londinium . London's ancient core, the City of London
London
, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries
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Clarence Hansell
CLARENCE WESTON HANSELL (January 20, 1898 – c. 1967) was an American research engineer who pioneered investigation into the biological effects of ion air. He was granted over 300 US patents, including, in the 1930s, a precursor to the modern ink jet printer that could print 750 words a minute, its data received via radio telegraph. Only Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
held more patents. CONTENTS * 1 Life and education * 2 Career * 3 References * 3.1 On the biological and mood-altering effects of negative ions * 4 External links LIFE AND EDUCATIONHansell was born in Medaryville, Indiana
Medaryville, Indiana
on January 20, 1898. He graduated from Purdue University with a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering in 1919. He was awarded an honorary Doctorate of Electrical Engineering in 1952
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Metal
A METAL (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal" ) is a material (an element , compound , or alloy ) that is typically hard, opaque , shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity . Metals are generally malleable —that is, they can be hammered or pressed permanently out of shape without breaking or cracking—as well as fusible (able to be fused or melted) and ductile (able to be drawn out into a thin wire). About 91 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals; the others are nonmetals or metalloids . Some elements appear in both metallic and non-metallic forms. Astrophysicists use the term "metal" to collectively describe all elements other than hydrogen and helium , the simplest two, in a star. The star fuses smaller atoms, mostly hydrogen and helium, to make larger ones over its lifetime. In that sense, the metallicity of an object is the proportion of its matter made up of all heavier chemical elements, not just traditional metals
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Drawing (manufacturing)
DRAWING is a metalworking process which uses tensile forces to stretch metal . As the metal is DRAWN (pulled), it stretches thinner, into a desired shape and thickness. Drawing is classified in two types: sheet metal drawing and wire , bar , and tube drawing. The specific definition for sheet metal drawing is that it involves plastic deformation over a curved axis. For wire, bar, and tube drawing the starting stock is drawn through a die to reduce its diameter and increase its length. Drawing is usually done at room temperature, thus classified a cold working process, however it may be performed at elevated temperatures to hot work large wires, rods or hollow sections in order to reduce forces. Drawing differs from rolling in that the pressure of drawing is not transmitted through the turning action of the mill but instead depends on force applied locally near the area of compression
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Paris
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. PARIS (French pronunciation: ​ ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city in France
France
, with an administrative-limits area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and an official population of 2,206,488 (2015). The city is a commune and department , and the heart of the 12,012-square-kilometre (4,638-square-mile) Île-de- France
France
region (colloquially known as the ' Paris
Paris
Region'), whose 2016 population of 12,142,802 represented roughly 18 percent of the population of France. Since the 17th century, Paris
Paris
has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts
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John Tyndall
JOHN TYNDALL FRS (2 August 1820 – 4 December 1893) was a prominent 19th-century Irish physicist. His initial scientific fame arose in the 1850s from his study of diamagnetism . Later he made discoveries in the realms of infrared radiation and the physical properties of air. Tyndall also published more than a dozen science books which brought state-of-the-art 19th century experimental physics to a wide audience. From 1853 to 1887 he was professor of physics at the Royal Institution of Great Britain in London
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