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Opposition (astronomy)
In positional astronomy, two astronomical objects are said to be in opposition when they are on opposite sides of the celestial sphere, as observed from a given body (usually Earth). A planet (or asteroid or comet) is said to be "in opposition" when it is in opposition to the Sun. Because most orbits in the Solar System are nearly coplanar to the ecliptic, this occurs when the Sun, Earth, and the body are configured in an approximately straight line, or syzygy; that is, Earth
Earth
and the body are in the same direction as seen from the Sun
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Positional Astronomy
Spherical astronomy or positional astronomy is the branch of astronomy that is used to determine the location of objects on the celestial sphere, as seen at a particular date, time, and location on Earth. It relies on the mathematical methods of spherical geometry and the measurements of astrometry. This is the oldest branch of astronomy and dates back to antiquity. Observations of celestial objects have been, and continue to be, important for religious and astrological purposes, as well as for timekeeping and navigation. The science of actually measuring positions of celestial objects in the sky is known as astrometry. The primary elements of spherical astronomy are coordinate systems and time. The coordinates of objects on the sky are listed using the equatorial coordinate system, which is based on the projection of Earth's equator onto the celestial sphere. The position of an object in this system is given in terms of right ascension (α) and declination (δ)
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Astronomical Object
An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.[1] In astronomy, the terms "object" and "body" are often used interchangeably. However, an astronomical body or celestial body is a single, tightly bound contiguous entity, while an astronomical or celestial object is a complex, less cohesively bound structure, that may consist of multiple bodies or even other objects with substructures. Examples for astronomical objects include planetary systems, star clusters, nebulae and galaxies, while asteroids, moons, planets, and stars are astronomical bodies
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Mars
Mars
Mars
is the fourth planet from the Sun
Sun
and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System
Solar System
after Mercury. In English, Mars
Mars
carries a name of the Roman god of war, and is often referred to as the "Red Planet"[14][15] because the reddish iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance that is distinctive among the astronomical bodies visible to the naked eye.[16] Mars
Mars
is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon
Moon
and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth. The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars
Mars
are likewise similar to those of Earth, as is the tilt that produces the seasons
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Conjunction (astronomy)
In astronomy, a conjunction occurs when two astronomical objects or spacecraft have either the same right ascension or the same ecliptic longitude, usually as observed from Earth.[1][2] The astronomical symbol for conjunction is ☌ (in Unicode
Unicode
U+260C) and handwritten . The conjunction symbol is not used in modern astronomy. It continues to be used in astrology. When two objects always appear close to the ecliptic—such as two planets, the Moon
Moon
and a planet, or the Sun
Sun
and a planet—this fact implies an apparent close approach between the objects as seen on the sky
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Inferior And Superior Planets
In the Solar System, a planet is said to be inferior with respect to another planet if its orbit lies inside the other planet's orbit around the Sun. In this situation, the latter planet is said to be superior to the former. In the reference frame of the Earth, in which the terms were originally used, the inferior planets are Mercury and Venus, while the superior planets are Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune
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Astronomical Symbol
Astronomical symbols
Astronomical symbols
are symbols used to represent astronomical objects, theoretical constructs and observational events in astronomy. The earliest forms of these symbols appear in Greek papyri of late antiquity. The Byzantine codices in which the Greek papyri were preserved continued and extended the inventory of astronomical symbols.[2][3] New symbols were further invented to represent many just-discovered planets and minor planets discovered in the 18th-20th centuries. These symbols were once commonly used by professional astronomers, amateur astronomers, alchemists, and astrologers
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Lunar Eclipse
A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon
Moon
passes directly behind Earth
Earth
and into its shadow. This can occur only when the Sun, Earth, and the Moon are aligned (in syzygy) exactly or very closely so, with the planet in between. Hence, a lunar eclipse can occur only on the night of a full moon. The type and length of an eclipse depend on the Moon's proximity to either node of its orbit. During a total lunar eclipse, Earth
Earth
completely blocks direct sunlight from reaching the Moon. The only light reflected from the lunar surface has been refracted by Earth's atmosphere. This light appears reddish for the same reason that a sunset or sunrise does: the Rayleigh scattering
Rayleigh scattering
of bluer light
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Moon
The Moon
The Moon
is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth, being Earth's only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary). Following Jupiter's satellite Io, the Moon
Moon
is the second-densest satellite in the Solar System
Solar System
among those whose densities are known. The Moon
The Moon
is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth
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Full Moon
The full moon is the lunar phase when the Moon
Moon
appears fully illuminated from Earth's perspective. This occurs when Earth
Earth
is located directly between the Sun
Sun
and the Moon
Moon
(more exactly, when the ecliptic longitudes of the Sun
Sun
and Moon
Moon
differ by 180°). This means that the lunar hemisphere facing Earth
Earth
– the near side – is completely sunlit and appears as a circular disk, while the far side is dark
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Planetary Phase
A planetary phase is a period of time during which a certain portion of a planet's area reflects sunlight from the perspective of a given vantage point.Contents1 Inferior planets 2 Superior planets 3 References 4 See alsoInferior planets[edit] The two inferior planets, Mercury and Venus, which have orbits that are smaller than the Earth's, exhibit the full range of phases as does the Moon, when seen through a telescope. Their phases are "full" when they are at superior conjunction, on the far side of the Sun as seen from the Earth
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Apparent Magnitude
The apparent magnitude (m) of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. The brighter an object appears, the lower its magnitude value (i.e. inverse relation). The Sun, at apparent magnitude of −27, is the brightest object in the sky. It is adjusted to the value it would have in the absence of the atmosphere. Furthermore, the magnitude scale is logarithmic. A difference of 1 in magnitude corresponds to a change in brightness by a factor of 5√100, or about 2.512. The measurement of apparent magnitudes or brightnesses of celestial objects is known as photometry. Apparent magnitudes are used to quantify the brightness of sources at ultraviolet, visible, and infrared wavelengths. An apparent magnitude is usually measured in a specific passband corresponding to some photometric system such as the UBV system
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Angular Diameter
The angular diameter, angular size, apparent diameter, or apparent size is an angular measurement describing how large a sphere or circle appears from a given point of view. In the vision sciences, it is called the visual angle, and in optics, it is the angular aperture (of a lens). The angular diameter can alternatively be thought of as the angle through which an eye or camera must rotate to look from one side of an apparent circle to the opposite side
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Culmination
In astronomy, the culmination of a planet, star, or constellation is its transit over an observer's meridian.[1][2] During a sidereal day, an astronomical object crosses the meridian twice: once at its upper culmination, when it is approximately at its highest point as seen from the Earth, and once at its lower culmination, its approximately lowest point. Often, culmination is used to mean upper culmination.[1][2][3] The altitude of an object in degrees at its upper culmination is equal to (90 − L + D), where L is the observer's latitude and D is the object's declination.Contents1 Cases 2 Period 3 Sun 4 Polaris 5 See also 6 ReferencesCases[edit] The three cases are dependent on the observer's latitude and the declination of the celestial body:The object is above the horizon even at its lower culmination; i.e. if declination + latitude > 90° (i.e
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