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Oppida
An oppidum (plural oppida) is a large fortified Iron Age
Iron Age
settlement. Oppida are associated with the Celtic late La Tène culture, emerging during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, spread across Europe, stretching from Britain and Iberia
Iberia
in the west to the edge of the Hungarian plain in the east. They continued in use until the Romans began conquering Europe
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Oppido (other)
Oppido may refer to:Oppido Lucano, Italian municipality of the Province of Potenza, Basilicata, Italy Oppido Mamertina, Italian municipality of the Province of Reggio Calabria, Calabria, ItalySee also[edit]Oppidum, a large fortified Iron Age settlement D'Oppido, a surnameThis disambiguation page lists articles about distinct geographical locations with the same name. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the inten
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Dry Stone
Dry stone, sometimes called drystack or, in Scotland, drystane, is a building method by which structures are constructed from stones without any mortar to bind them together.[1] Dry stone
Dry stone
structures are stable because of their unique construction method, which is characterized by the presence of a load-bearing façade of carefully selected interlocking stones. Dry stone
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Iron Age Europe
Iron Age
Iron Age
metallurgy Ancient iron production↓ Ancient historyMediterranean, Greater Persia, South Asia, ChinaHistoriographyGreek, Roman, Chinese, MedievalIn Europe, the Iron Age
Iron Age
may be defined as including the last stages of the prehistoric period and the first of the proto-historic periods.[1] Iron working was introduced to Europe in the late 11th century BC,[2] probably from the Caucasus, and slowly spread northwards and westwards over the succeeding 500 years
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Bern
The city of Bern
Bern
(German: [bɛrn] ( listen)) or Berne (French: [bɛʁn]; Italian: Berna [ˈbɛrna]; Romansh: Berna  [ˈbɛrnɐ]; Bernese German: Bärn [b̥æːrn]) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g
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Paul Reinecke
Paul Heinrich Adalbert Reinecke (September 25, 1872 – May 12, 1958) was a German prehistorian and archaeologist.[1][2][3] Reinecke was born in Berlin. He worked at the Romano-Germanic Central Museum and later at the Bavarian State Office for Monument Protection. Until his death in 1958, he worked on almost all periods of European prehistory and early history, in particular on the chronology of the European Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and Iron Age.[4] The names Michelsberg culture (1908) and the Altheim culture (1915) as well as the periodization of the Hallstatt culture
Hallstatt culture
go back to him. In 1953 he was awarded the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reinecke died in Herrsching. References[edit]^ A. F. Harding (18 May 2000). European Societies in the Bronze Age. Cambridge University Press. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0-521-36729-5.  ^ Andrew Jones (10 November 2008)
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Pincer Gate
A pincer gate (German: Zangentor) is a gate in a fortification that is deeply embedded between two inward angled exterior walls. Those wishing to enter the fort have to approach what is in effect a sunken road and, if hostile, can be attacked from both side walls in a pincer fashion. Pincer gates were already being used in Urnfield and Celtic fortification in Central Europe and may also be seen in Early Medieval circular ramparts. They were common well into the High Middle Ages. Literature[edit]Horst Wolfgang Böhme, Reinhard Friedrich, Barbara Schock-Werner: Wörterbuch der Burgen, Schlösser und Festungen. Philipp Reclam, Stuttgart, 2004, ISBN 3-15-010547-1, pp
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Circular Rampart
A circular rampart (German: Ringwall) is an embankment built in the shape of a circle that was used as part of the defences for a military fortification, hill fort or refuge, or was built for religious purposes or as a place of gathering. The period during which these structures appeared stretches from the Neolithic
Neolithic
to the Middle Ages.Contents1 Construction 2 Locations 3 Notable circular ramparts 4 See also 5 References 6 Literature 7 External linksConstruction[edit]Varbola ruins in EstoniaThe key feature of a circular rampart is the embankment forming the primary means of the defensive fortification. It can be constructed in various ways: as a simple earth embankment, as a wood and earth structure or as a wall. Circular ramparts usually have a moat or ditch in front of them; the embankment can be enhanced with a wooden palisade. Often several concentric rings were built, which produced a more effective defensive position against attackers
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Bohemia
Coordinates: 50°N 15°E / 50°N 15°E / 50; 15This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Bavaria
Anthem: Bayernhymne  (German) "Hymn of Bavaria"Coordinates: 48°46′39″N 11°25′52″E / 48.77750°N 11.43111°E / 48.77750; 11.43111Country GermanyCapital MunichGovernment • Body Landtag of Bavaria • Minister-President Markus Söder
Markus Söder
(CSU – Christian Social Union of Bavaria) • Governing party CSU • Bundesrat votes 6 (of 69)Area • Total 70,550.19 km2 (27,239.58 sq mi)Population (2016-12-31)[1
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Stanwick Iron Age Fortifications
Stanwick Iron Age
Iron Age
Fortifications (also known as 'Stanwick Camp'), a huge Iron Age
Iron Age
hill fort, sometimes but not always considered an oppidum, comprising over 9 kilometers (5.6 mi) of ditches and ramparts enclosing approximately 300 hectares (700 acres) of land,[1] are situated in Richmondshire, North Yorkshire, England
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Kelheim
Kelheim
Kelheim
is a town and municipality in Bavaria, Germany. It is the capital of the district Kelheim
Kelheim
and is situated at the confluence of Altmühl
Altmühl
and Danube. Kelheim
Kelheim
has a population of around 15,750.Contents1 History 2 Born in Kelheim 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit]Engraving of the Befreiungshalle, or Hall of Liberation, one of Kelheim's best-known landmarks, just after its construction. Kelheim
Kelheim
is the site of a large Iron Age
Iron Age
oppidum from the La Tène period, which has been tentatively identified with the Celtic city of Alcimoennis
Alcimoennis
mentioned by Ptolemy
Ptolemy
in his Geography
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Bituriges
The Bituriges
Bituriges
( Bituriges
Bituriges
Cubi) were a tribe of Celtic Gaul
Gaul
with its capital at Bourges
Bourges
(Avaricum), whose territory corresponds to the former province of Berry. Their name supposedly meant "kings of the world".[1] Early in the 1st century BCE, they had been one of the main Gallic tribes, especially in terms of druids and their political influence. But they soon declined in power as the druids were an important target for Julius Caesar in his conquest of Gaul.[citation needed] What is more, the fact that Avaricum
Avaricum
(Bourges) was the only Celtic city that Vercingetorix
Vercingetorix
did not burn, contrary to his scorched earth strategy, upon the approach of Caesar's legions is another proof of the political importance of the Bituriges
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Preist
Preist
Preist
is a municipality in the district of Bitburg-Prüm, in Rhineland-Palatinate, western Germany.Wikimedia Commons has media related to Preist.References[edit]^ "Gemeinden in Deutschland mit Bevölkerung am 31. Dezember 2015" (PDF). Statistisches Bundesamt
Statistisches Bundesamt
(in German)
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Murus Gallicus
Murus Gallicus
Murus Gallicus
or Gallic Wall is a method of construction of defensive walls used to protect Iron Age
Iron Age
hillforts and oppida of the La Tene period in Western Europe. The distinctive features are:earth or rubble fill transverse cross beams at approximately 2 ft (60 cm) intervals longitudinal timbers laid on the cross beams and attached with mortice joints, nails, or iron spikes through augered holes outer stone facing cross beams protruding through the stone facingThe technique was described by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in his Commentaries on the Gallic Wars:But this is usually the form of all the Gallic walls. Straight beams, connected lengthwise and two feet distant from each other at equal intervals, are placed together on the ground; these are morticed on the inside, and covered with plenty of earth
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Camulodunon
Camulodunum
Camulodunum
(/ˌkæmjʊloʊˈdjuːnəm/ or /ˌkæməloʊˈduːnəm/;[1] Latin: CAMVLODVNVM), the Ancient Roman name for what is now Colchester
Colchester
in Essex, was an important[2][3] town in Roman Britain, and the first capital of the province
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