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Opium
Opium
Opium
(poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).[4] Approximately 12 percent of the opium latex is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, which is processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for illegal drug trade. The latex also contains the closely related opiates codeine and thebaine, and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine. The traditional, labor-intensive method of obtaining the latex is to scratch ("score") the immature seed pods (fruits) by hand; the latex leaks out and dries to a sticky yellowish residue that is later scraped off and dehydrated
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History Of Medicine
The history of medicine, as practiced by trained professionals, shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present. Early medical traditions include those of Babylon, China, Egypt and India. The Greeks introduced the concepts of medical diagnosis, prognosis, and advanced medical ethics. The Hippocratic Oath
Hippocratic Oath
was written in ancient Greece in the 5th century BCE, and is a direct inspiration for oaths of office that physicians swear upon entry into the profession today. In the medieval age, surgical practices inherited from the ancient masters were improved and then systematized in Rogerius's The Practice of Surgery. Universities began systematic training of physicians around the years 1220 in Italy. During the Renaissance, understanding of anatomy improved, and the microscope was invented. The germ theory of disease in the 19th century led to cures for many infectious diseases
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Neolithic
farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic
Neolithic
religion↓ ChalcolithicThe Neolithic
Neolithic
(/ˌniːəˈlɪθɪk/ ( listen)[1]) was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world[2] and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age
Stone Age
or The New Stone Age, the Neolithic
Neolithic
followed the terminal Holocene
Holocene
Epipaleolithic period and commenced with the beginning of farming, which produced the " Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution"
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Caliphate
A caliphate (Arabic: خِلافة‎ khilāfah) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (/ˈkælɪf, ˈkeɪ-/, Arabic: خَليفة‎ khalīfah,  pronunciation (help·info)), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and a leader of the entire Muslim
Muslim
community.[1] Historically, the caliphates were polities based in Islam
Islam
which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires.[2] During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
(632–661), the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
(661–750) and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258)
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Phenanthrene
Phenanthrene
Phenanthrene
is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composed of three fused benzene rings. The name 'phenanthrene' is a composite of phenyl and anthracene
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Semisynthesis
Semisynthesis
Semisynthesis
or partial chemical synthesis is a type of chemical synthesis that uses chemical compounds isolated from natural sources (e.g., microbial cell cultures or plant material) as the starting materials to produce other novel compounds with distinct chemical and medicinal properties. These novel compounds are generally high molecular weight or have complex molecular structure, more so than those produced by total synthesis from simple starting materials. Semisynthesis
Semisynthesis
is a means of preparing many medicines more cheaply than if by total synthesis, because fewer chemical steps are necessary. Overview[edit] Semisynthesis
Semisynthesis
of paclitaxel
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Papaver Orientale
Papaver
Papaver
orientale, the Oriental poppy,[2] is a perennial flowering plant[3] native to the Caucasus, northeastern Turkey, and northern Iran.[4] Oriental poppies grow a mound of leaves that are hairy and finely dissected in spring. They gather energy and bloom in mid-summer. After flowering the foliage dies away entirely, a property that allows their survival in the summer drought of Central Asia. Gardeners can place late-developing plants nearby to fill the developing gap.Contents1 Cultivation1.1 Cultivars2 Related species 3 References 4 SourcesCultivation[edit] Papaver
Papaver
orientale has a USDA hardiness zone of 3-8. It usually thrives in soil pH 6.5 to 7.5 and in full sun or part shade. Seeds are sown after the potential of frost has passed, the average temperature is approximately 21 °C and when soil has thoroughly warmed
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Papaver Bracteatum
Papaver
Papaver
bracteatum, also known as the Iranian poppy and Persian poppy and the great scarlet poppy (it is firstly discribed by Dr. N. Saharghi and l. Lalezari nature 213, 1244, 1967 doi:10.1038/2131244a0 ) is a sturdy hardy perennial poppy with large deep red flowers up to 8 inches (20 cm) diameter on stiff stalks up to 4 feet (1.22 metres) high with a prominent black spot near the base of the petals. It is closely related to the commonly cultivated oriental poppy, Papaver
Papaver
orientale and is sometimes recorded as the varietal form Papaver
Papaver
orientale var. bracteatum.[1] Uses[edit] This species is grown to produce thebaine, which is commercially converted to codeine and semi-synthetic opiates. Papaver
Papaver
bracteatum does not contain morphine, codeine or any other narcotic alkaloids in significant amounts
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Mediterranean Basin
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
/ˌmɛdɪtəˈreɪniən/ (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation. The Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
is the Old World
Old World
region where olive trees grow.[2]Contents1 Geography 2 Geology and paleoclimatology 3 Flora and fauna 4 Ecoregions 5 History 6 Agriculture 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksGeography[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Anaesthetic
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery. A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anesthetic practice. Many are rarely used outside anesthesia, although others are used commonly by all disciplines. Anesthetics are categorized into two classes: general anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of consciousness, and local anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of sensation for a limited region of the body while maintaining consciousness. Combinations of anesthetics are sometimes used for their synergistic and additive therapeutic effects
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United States Dollar
 United States  East Timor[2][Note 1]  Ecuador[3][Note 2]  El Salvador[4]  Federated States of Micronesia  Marshall Islands  Palau  Panama[Note 3]  Zimbabwe[Note 4]3 non-U.S
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Ritual
A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".[1] Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a community, including a religious community. Rituals are characterized but not defined by formalism, traditionalism, invariance, rule-governance, sacral symbolism, and performance.[2] Rituals are a feature of all known human societies.[3] They include not only the worship rites and sacraments of organized religions and cults, but also rites of passage, atonement and purification rites, oaths of allegiance, dedication ceremonies, coronations and presidential inaugurations, marriages and funerals, school "rush" traditions and graduations, club meetings, sporting events, Halloween parties, veterans parades, Christmas
Christmas
shopping and more
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Poultice
A poultice, also called a cataplasm, is a soft moist mass, often heated and medicated, that is spread on cloth over the skin to treat an aching, inflamed or painful part of the body. It can be used on wounds such as cuts. Poultice
Poultice
may also refer to a porous solid filled with solvent used to remove stains from porous stone such as marble or granite. The word "poultice" comes from the Latin puls, pultes, meaning "porridge".Contents1 Types 2 Inflammation
Inflammation
treatment 3 Stain removal from decorative stone surfaces 4 ReferencesTypes[edit]Some Native Americans used mashed pumpkin or Devil’s club as a poultice.[1] In addition to bread and cereals, bran may also be used as a poultice because of its absorbent quality. It is packed into the wound and then covered with a piece of sacking or similar material before being bandaged onto the site of the wound. There are also many commercial poultices that are ready-made
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Sumer
Sumer
Sumer
(/ˈsuːmər/)[note 1] is the earliest known civilization in the historical region of southern Mesopotamia, modern-day southern Iraq, during the Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
and Early Bronze
Bronze
ages, and arguably the first civilization in the world with Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
and the Indus Valley.[1] Living along the valleys of the Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates, Sumerian farmers were able to grow an abundance of grain and other crops, the surplus of which enabled them to settle in one place. Proto-writing
Proto-writing
in the prehistory dates back to c. 3000 BC
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Assyria
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East
Near East
and the Levant
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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