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Operation Grapple
Operation Grapple
Operation Grapple
was the name of four series of British nuclear weapons tests of early atomic bombs and hydrogen bombs carried out in 1957 and 1958 at Malden Island
Malden Island
and Christmas Island in the Pacific Ocean as part of the British hydrogen bomb programme. Nine nuclear explosions were initiated, culminating in the United Kingdom becoming the third recognised possessor of thermonuclear weapons, and the restoration of the nuclear Special Relationship
Special Relationship
with the United States with the 1958 US-UK Mutual Defence Agreement. During the Second World War, Britain had a nuclear weapons project, codenamed Tube Alloys, which was merged with the American Manhattan Project in August 1943. Many of Britain's top scientists participated in the British contribution to the Manhattan Project
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William Penney
William George Penney, Baron Penney OM KBE FRS FRSE[3] (24 June 1909 – 3 March 1991), was an English mathematician and professor of mathematical physics at the Imperial College London and later the rector of Imperial College. He is acknowledged as having had a leading role in the development of Britain's nuclear programme, a clandestine programme started in 1942 during World War II which produced the first British atomic bomb in 1952.[4] As the head of the British delegation working in the Manhattan Project, Penney initially carried out calculations to predict the damage effects generated by the blast wave of an atomic bomb. Upon returning home, Penney directed Britain's own nuclear weapons directorate, codename Tube Alloys, and directed scientific research at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment which resulted in the first detonation of a British nuclear bomb, (codename Operation Hurricane) in 1952
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Boosted Fission Weapon
A boosted fission weapon usually refers to a type of nuclear bomb that uses a small amount of fusion fuel to increase the rate, and thus yield, of a fission reaction. The neutrons released by the fusion reactions add to the neutrons released due to fission, allowing for more neutron-induced fission reactions to take place. The rate of fission is thereby greatly increased such that much more of the fissile material is able to undergo fission before the core explosively disassembles. The fusion process itself adds only a small amount of energy to the process, perhaps 1%.[1] The alternative meaning is an obsolete type of single-stage nuclear bomb that uses thermonuclear fusion on a large scale to create fast neutrons that can cause fission in depleted uranium, but which is not a two-stage hydrogen bomb
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Operation Hurricane
Operation Hurricane
Operation Hurricane
was the test of the first UK atomic device, on 3 October 1952. A plutonium implosion device was detonated in the lagoon in the Monte Bello Islands
Monte Bello Islands
in Western Australia. With the success of Operation Hurricane, Britain became the third nuclear power after the United States and the Soviet Union. During the Second World War, Britain commenced a nuclear weapons project, known as Tube Alloys, but the 1943 Quebec Agreement
Quebec Agreement
merged it with the American Manhattan Project. Several key British scientists worked as part of the British contribution to the Manhattan Project, but after the war the Americans ended cooperation on nuclear weapons. In January 1947, a cabinet sub-committee decided, in response to an apprehension of American isolationism and fears of Britain losing its great power status, to resume British efforts to build nuclear weapons
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Cabinet Of The United Kingdom
The Cabinet of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government
Her Majesty's Government
of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers. Ministers of the Crown, and especially Cabinet ministers, are selected primarily from the elected members of House of Commons, and from the House of Lords, by the Prime Minister. Cabinet ministers are heads of government departments, mostly with the office of "Secretary of State for [function; e.g., Defence]"
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United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
(UKAEA) is a UK government research organisation responsible for the development of nuclear fusion power. It is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
(BEIS). On its formation in 1954, the authority was responsible for the UK's entire nuclear program, both civil and defence, as well as the policing of nuclear sites. It made pioneering developments in nuclear (fission) power, overseeing the peaceful development of nuclear technology and performing much scientific research
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United States Atomic Energy Act Of 1946
The Atomic Energy Act of 1946
Atomic Energy Act of 1946
(McMahon Act) determined how the United States would control and manage the nuclear technology it had jointly developed with its World War II
World War II
allies, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Canada. Most significantly, the Act ruled that nuclear weapon development and nuclear power management would be under civilian, rather than military control, and established the United States
United States
Atomic Energy Commission for this purpose. It was sponsored by Senator Brien McMahon, a Democrat from Connecticut, who chaired the United States
United States
Senate Special
Special
Committee on Atomic Energy, and whose hearings in late 1945 and early 1946 led to the fine tuning and passing of the Act
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Aldermaston
Aldermaston
Aldermaston
/ˈɔːldərmɑːstən/ is a mostly rural, dispersed settlement, civil parish and electoral ward in Berkshire, England. In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Census 2011, the parish had a population of 1015.[2] The village is in the south the mid-Kennet alluvial plain and bounds to the south Hampshire. It is roughly equidistant from Newbury, Basingstoke
Basingstoke
and Reading, centred 46 miles (74 km) west-by-south-west of London. Aldermaston
Aldermaston
may have been inhabited as early as 1690 BCE; a number of postholes and remains of cereal grains have been found in the area. Written history of the village is traced back at least as far as the 9th century CE. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles show that the Ealdorman of Berkshire
Berkshire
had his country estate in the village
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Quebec Agreement
The Quebec Agreement was an agreement between the United Kingdom and the United States outlining the terms for the coordinated development of the basic science and advanced engineering related to nuclear energy, and, specifically nuclear weapons. It was signed by Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt on 19 August 1943, during World War II, at the Quadrant Conference in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. The Quebec Agreement stipulated that nuclear weapons development would be a joint venture with a free exchange of information, and that neither country would use them against the other, or against other countries without mutual consent, or pass information about them to other countries. It also gave the President of the United States a veto over post-war British commercial or industrial uses of nuclear energy. The agreement merged the British Tube Alloys project with the American Manhattan Project, and created the Combined Policy Committee to control the joint project
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Franklin Roosevelt
Governor of New York GovernorshipPresident of the United States PresidencyFirst Term1932 campaignElection1st Inauguration First 100 daysNew Deal Glass-Steagall Act WPA Social Security SEC Fireside ChatsSecond Term1936 campaignElection2nd InaugurationSupreme Court Packing National Recovery Act 1937 Recession March of Dimes Pre-war foreign policyThird Term1940 campaignElection3rd InaugurationWorld War IIWorld War IIAttack on Pearl Harbor Infamy Speech Atlantic Charter Japanese Internment Tehran Conference United Nations D-DaySecond Bill of Rights G.I
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Great Power
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale. Great powers characteristically possess military and economic strength, as well as diplomatic and soft power influence, which may cause middle or small powers to consider the great powers' opinions before taking actions of their own. International relations theorists have posited that great power status can be characterized into power capabilities, spatial aspects, and status dimensions. While some nations are widely considered to be great powers, there is no definitive list of them
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President Of The United States
House of RepresentativesSpeaker Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
(R)Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R)Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
(D)Congressional districts
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Wing Commander (rank)
Wing commander (Wg Cdr in the RAF, the IAF, and the PAF, WGCDR in the RNZAF and RAAF, formerly sometimes W/C in all services) is a senior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force[1] and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence, including many Commonwealth countries but not including Canada and South Africa. It is sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in countries which have a non-English air force-specific rank structure. It ranks immediately above squadron leader and immediately below group captain
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Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG OM CH TD DL FRS RA (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. As a Member of Parliament (MP), he represented five constituencies during his career. As Prime Minister, Churchill oversaw British victory in the Second World War. Ideologically an economic liberal and British imperialist, he was a member of the Liberal Party from 1904 to 1924 before joining the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955. Born in Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
to an aristocratic family, Churchill was the son of an English politician and an American socialite. Joining the British Army, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, and the Second Boer
Boer
War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns
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Prime Minister Of The United Kingdom
The Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister
Prime Minister
(informally abbreviated to PM) and Cabinet (consisting of all the most senior ministers, most of whom are government department heads) are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Parliament, to their political party and ultimately to the electorate. The office is one of the Great Offices of State
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Nuclear Fission
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei). The fission process often produces free neutrons and gamma photons, and releases a very large amount of energy even by the energetic standards of radioactive decay. Nuclear fission
Nuclear fission
of heavy elements was discovered on December 17, 1938 by German Otto Hahn
Otto Hahn
and his assistant Fritz Strassmann, and explained theoretically in January 1939 by Lise Meitner
Lise Meitner
and her nephew Otto Robert Frisch. Frisch named the process by analogy with biological fission of living cells. It is an exothermic reaction which can release large amounts of energy both as electromagnetic radiation and as kinetic energy of the fragments (heating the bulk material where fission takes place)
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