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Operation Barbarossa
Frontline strength (initial)3.8 million personnel[1][2] 3,350–3,795 tanks[3][1][4][5] 3,030–3,072 other AFVs[6][7] 2,770–5,369 aircraft[3][8] 7,200–23,435 artillery pieces[1][3][5] 17,081 mortars[5]Frontline strength (initial)2.6–2.9 million personnel[9][10][11] 11,000 tanks[12][13] 7,133–9,100 military aircraft[14][15][16]Casualties and lossesTotal military casualties: 1,000,000+BreakdownCasualties of 1941:According to German Army medical reports (including Army Norway):[17]186,452 killed 40,157 missing 655,179 wounded in action[a] 8,000 evacuated sick2,827 aircraft destroyed[18] 2,735 tanks destroyed[4][19] 104 assault guns destroyed[4][19]Other involved country losses 114,000+ casualties (at least 39,000 dead or missing)[b] 8,700 casualties[c] 5,000+ casualties[d]Total military casualties: 4,973,820BreakdownCasualties of 1941:Based on Soviet archives:[21]
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Third Army (Romania)
The 3rd Army (Armata a 3-a Română) was a field army of the Romanian Land Forces active from the 19th century to the 1990s. It fought as part of the German Army Group B during World War II, in Ukraine, the Crimea, and the Caucasus. General Petre Dumitrescu
Petre Dumitrescu
commanded 3rd Army for a period.Contents1 World War I 2 World War II 3 Battle of Stalingrad 4 Later in the war and postwar 5 References 6 External linksWorld War I[edit] In World War I, the Third Army defended the border with Bulgaria when the rest of the Romanian Army attacked Transylvania. When a Bulgarian-German army under August von Mackensen
August von Mackensen
invaded Romania in September 1916, the Romanian Third Army made attempts to withstand the enemy offensive at Silistra, Dobrich, Amzacea
Amzacea
and Topraisar, but had to withdraw under the pressure of superior enemy forces
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Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Russo-Japanese War First World War Finnish Civil War Second World WarWinter War Continuation War Lapland War Baron
Baron
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
(Swedish pronunciation: [kɑːɭ ²ɡɵˌstav ˈeːmɪl ²manːɛrˌheɪm]; 4 June 1867 – 27 January 1951) was a Finnish military leader and statesman.[1] Mannerheim served as the military leader of the Whites in the Finnish Civil War, Regent
Regent
of Finland (1918–1919), commander-in-chief of Finland's defence forces during World War II, Marshal of Finland, and the sixth president of Finland (1944–1946). Mannerheim made a career in the Imperial Russian Army, rising to the rank of lieutenant general. He also had a prominent place in the ceremonies for Tsar Nicholas II's coronation and later had several private meetings with the Russian Tsar
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Killed In Action
Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.[1] The United States
United States
Department of Defense, for example, says that those declared KIA need not have fired their weapons but have been killed due to hostile attack. KIAs do not come from incidents such as accidental vehicle crashes and other "non-hostile" events or terrorism. KIA can be applied both to front-line combat troops and to naval, air and support troops. Someone who is killed in action during a particular event is denoted with a † (dagger) beside their name to signify their death in that event or events. Further, KIA denotes one to have been killed in action on the battlefield whereas died of wounds (DOW) relates to someone who survived to reach a medical treatment facility
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Ivan Tyulenev
Ivan Vladimirovich Tyulenev (Russian: Ива́н Влади́мирович Тюле́нев; 28 January 1892 – 15 August 1978) was a Soviet military commander, one of the first to be promoted to the rank of General of the Army in 1940. Biography[edit] Tyulenvev was born into a soldier's family in the Simbirsk Governorate (now Ulyanovsk Oblast) settlement of Shatrashany. He worked in factories and as a Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
fisherman before being drafted into the Imperial Russian Army
Imperial Russian Army
in 1913. During World War I
World War I
he fought with the Kargopolsky dragoons in Congress Poland
Congress Poland
and was awarded the Order of St George for his courage. Tyulenvev joined the Red Army after the revolution and served during the Russian Civil war with the 1st Cavalry Army
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Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Europe
is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region".[1] A related United Nations
United Nations
paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct".[2] One definition describes Eastern Europe
Europe
as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe
Europe
with the main characteristics consisting of Greek, Byzantine, Eastern Orthodox, Russian, and some Ottoman culture influences.[3][4] Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc
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Northern Europe
Northern Europe
Europe
is the general term for the geographical region in Europe
Europe
that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Nations usually included within this region are Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania, and occasionally Ireland, Britain, northern Germany, northern Belarus
Belarus
and northwest Russia. Narrower definitions may be based on other geographical factors such as climate and ecology. A broader definition would include the area north of the Alps
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Capital Punishment
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital offences, and they commonly include offences such as murder, treason, espionage, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. Etymologically, the term capital (lit
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Fyodor Kuznetsov
Fyodor Isidorovich Kuznetsov (Russian: Фёдор Исидо́рович Кузнецо́в; 29 September 1898 – 22 March 1961) was a Colonel General
Colonel General
and military commander in the Soviet Union.[1] Biography[edit] Born to a peasant family in Mogilev Governorate
Mogilev Governorate
(present-day Horki Raion, Mogilev Oblast
Mogilev Oblast
of Belarus), Kuznetsov served in the Imperial Russian Army during World War I
World War I
and continued his service in the Bolsheviks' Red Army. During the German-Soviet War, he initially commanded the Northwestern Front during the Baltic Strategic Defensive Operation until 30 June 1941, but was relieved in early August 1941 (replaced by General Major P.P. Sabennikov)
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Markian Popov
Markian Mikhaylovich Popov (Russian: Маркиан Михайлович Попов; 1902 – 1969) was a Soviet military commander, Army General
Army General
(26 August 1943), and Hero of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1965). Life[edit] During the German–Soviet War
German–Soviet War
at various times he commanded a number of Armies and a number of Fronts. His career was uneven. In June 1941 he was Commander of the Leningrad
Leningrad
Military District, then Northern Front (24 June – 5 September). The Germans advanced with a terrific speed, but then they were halted just before Leningrad. The army group was on 26 August renamed as Leningrad
Leningrad
Front. Then he participated in Zhukov’s counteroffensive before Moscow. Zhukov, who co-ordinated several fronts in this Moscow
Moscow
sector, tried to collect able commanders in the area
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Kingdom Of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II
King Victor Emmanuel II
of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy
Italy
under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy
Italy
declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto
Veneto
following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome
Rome
in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power
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Kliment Voroshilov
Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov (Russian:  Климе́нт Ефре́мович Вороши́лов​ (help·info), Kliment Jefremovič Vorošilov; Ukrainian: Климент Охрімович Ворошилов, Klyment Okhrimovyč Vorošylov), popularly known as Klim Voroshilov (Russian: Клим Вороши́лов, Klim Vorošilov) (4 February 1881[1] – 2 December 1969), was a prominent Soviet military officer and politician during the Stalin era
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Finland
Finland
Finland
(/ˈfɪnlənd/ ( listen); Finnish: Suomi [suo̯mi] ( listen); Swedish: Finland
Finland
[ˈfɪnland]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Finland
Finland
(Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland)[7] is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. The country has land borders with Sweden
Sweden
to the northwest, Norway
Norway
to the north, and Russia
Russia
to the east. To the south is the Gulf of Finland
Finland
with Estonia
Estonia
on the opposite side
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2nd Army (Wehrmacht)
The 2nd Army (German: 2. Armee Oberkommando) was a World War II
World War II
field army.Contents1 Combat Chronicle1.1 Commanders2 See also 3 FootnotesCombat Chronicle[edit] The 2nd Army was activated on 20 October 1939, with General Maximilian Reichsfreiherr von Weichs in command. First seeing service in France[citation needed], the army was involved in the invasion of the Balkans, before offensive operations in Ukraine
Ukraine
as part of Operation Barbarossa. In 1942 the II
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18th Army (Wehrmacht)
The 18th Army (German: 18. Armee) was a World War II
World War II
field army in the German Wehrmacht. Formed in November 1939 in Military Region (Wehrkreis) VI, the 18th Army was part of the offensive into the Netherlands
Netherlands
(Battle of the Netherlands) and Belgium
Belgium
(Battle of Belgium) during Fall Gelb
Fall Gelb
and later moved into France
France
in 1940. The 18th Army was then moved East and participated in Operation Barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa
in 1941. The Army was a part of the Army Group North until early 1945, when it was subordinated to Army Group Kurland
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