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Olten
Olten
Olten
is a town in the canton of Solothurn
Solothurn
in Switzerland
Switzerland
and capital of the district of the same name. Olten's railway station is within 30 minutes of Zürich, Bern, Basel, and Lucerne
Lucerne
by train, and is a rail hub of Switzerland.Contents1 History 2 Geography 3 Coat of arms 4 Demographics 5 Heritage sites of national significance 6 Culture 7 Politics 8 Economy 9 Religion9.1 Churches10 Education 11 Sports 12 Notable people 13 References 14 External linksHistory[edit]Peasant woman from Olten
Olten
in traditional costume (c. 1800).Significant amounts of artefacts of the Magdalenian
Magdalenian
(c. 16'000 to 14'000 years ago) have been excavated near Olten
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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French Invasion Of Switzerland
The French invasion of Switzerland
Switzerland
(French: Campagne d'Helvétie, German: Franzoseneinfall) occurred from January until May 1798 as part of the French Revolutionary Wars. The independent Old Swiss Confederacy collapsed, both by this foreign invasion and simultaneous internal revolts, termed the "Helvetic Revolution". Its Ancien Régime institutions were abolished and replaced by the centralised pro-French Helvetic Republic.Contents1 Background 2 Invasion 3 Battles 4 Aftermath 5 ReferencesBackground[edit] Before 1798, the modern region of Vaud
Vaud
belonged to the Canton of Bern, to which it had a dependent status. Moreover, the majority of Francophone Catholic Vaudese felt oppressed by the German-speaking Protestant majority of Bern. Several Vaudese patriots such as Frédéric-César de La Harpe
Frédéric-César de La Harpe
advocated for independence
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Magdalenian
The Magdalenian
Magdalenian
(also Madelenian; French: Magdalénien) refers to one of the later cultures of the Upper Paleolithic
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Vicus
In Ancient Rome, the vicus (plural vici) was a neighborhood or settlement. During the Republican era, the four regiones of the city of Rome were subdivided into vici. In the 1st century BC, Augustus reorganized the city for administrative purposes into 14 regions, comprising 265 vici.[1] Each vicus had its own board of officials who oversaw local matters. These administrative divisions are recorded as still in effect at least through the mid-4th century.[2][3] The Latin
Latin
word vicus was also applied to the smallest administrative unit of a provincial town within the Roman Empire, and to an ad hoc provincial civilian settlement that sprang up close to and because of a nearby official Roman site, usually a military garrison or state-owned mining operation.Contents1 Local government in Rome 2 Ad hoc settlements 3 Modern placenames 4 See also 5 ReferencesLocal government in Rome[edit] See also: 14 regions of Augustan RomeThis section needs expansion
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Castrum
In the Roman Empire, the Latin
Latin
word castrum[1] (plural castra) was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp. Castrum was the term used for different sizes of camps including a large legionary fortress, smaller auxiliary forts, temporary encampments, and "marching" forts. The diminutive form castellum was used for fortlets, typically occupied by a detachment of a cohort or a century.[2] In English, the terms Roman fortress, Roman fort, and Roman camp are commonly used for castrum
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Gaulish Language
Gaulish is an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire. In the narrow sense, Gaulish was the language spoken by the Celtic inhabitants of Gaul
Gaul
(modern France, Belgium and Northern Italy). In a wider sense, it also comprises varieties of Celtic that were spoken across much of central Europe ("Noric"), parts of the Balkans, and Asia Minor ("Galatian"), which are thought to have been closely related.[2][3] The more divergent Lepontic of Northern Italy
Northern Italy
has also sometimes been subsumed under Gaulish.[4][5] Together with Lepontic and the Celtiberian language
Celtiberian language
spoken in the Iberian Peninsula, Gaulish forms the geographic group of Continental Celtic languages
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House Of Kyburg
Kyburg (also Kiburg) was a noble family of grafen (counts) in the Duchy of Swabia, a cadet line of the counts of Dillingen, who in the late 12th and early 13th century ruled the county of Kyburg, corresponding to much of what is now Northeastern Switzerland. The family was one of the four most powerful noble families in the Swiss plateau
Swiss plateau
beside the House of Habsburg, House of Zähringen
House of Zähringen
and the House of Savoy
House of Savoy
during 12th century
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House Of Habsburg
The House of Habsburg
Habsburg
(/ˈhæpsbɜːrɡ/; German pronunciation: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk], traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria[1] was one of the most influential and outstanding royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1438 and 1740. The house also produced emperors and kings of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
( Jure uxoris King), Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Illyria, Second Mexican Empire, Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
( Jure uxoris King), Kingdom of Portugal, and Kingdom of Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian principalities.[dubious – discuss] From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches
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Swiss Peasant War
The Swiss peasant war of 1653
Swiss peasant war of 1653
was a popular revolt in the Old Swiss Confederacy at the time of the Ancien Régime. A devaluation of Bernese money caused a tax revolt that spread from the Entlebuch valley in the Canton of Lucerne
Lucerne
to the Emmental
Emmental
valley in the Canton of Bern
Bern
and then to the cantons of Solothurn
Solothurn
and Basel
Basel
and also to the Aargau. The population of the countryside demanded fiscal relief from their ruling authorities, the city councils of these cantons' capitals. When their demands were dismissed by the cities, the peasants organized themselves and threatened to blockade the cities. After initial compromises mediated by other cantons had failed, the peasants united under the treaty of Huttwil, forming the "League of Huttwil"
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Swiss Restauration
The periods of Restoration and Regeneration in Swiss history
Swiss history
last from 1814 to 1847. "Restoration" refers to the period of 1814 to 1830,[2] the restoration of the Ancien Régime (federalism), reverting the changes imposed by Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
on the centralist Helvetic Republic from 1798 and the partial reversion to the old system with the Act of Mediation
Act of Mediation
of 1803. "Regeneration" refers to the period of 1830 to 1848, when in the wake of the July Revolution
July Revolution
the "restored" Ancien Régime was countered by the liberal movement. In the Protestant cantons, the rural population enforced liberal cantonal constitutions, partly in armed marches on the cities
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Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland
(/ˈswɪtsərlənd/), officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern
Bern
is the seat of the federal authorities.[1][2][note 1] The country is situated in Western-Central Europe,[note 4] and is bordered by Italy
Italy
to the south, France
France
to the west, Germany
Germany
to the north, and Austria
Austria
and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
to the east. Switzerland
Switzerland
is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi) (land area 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi))
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Jura Mountains
The Jura Mountains
Jura Mountains
(French: [ʒyʁa]; German: [ˈjuːra], locally [ˈjuːɾa]; French: Massif du Jura; German: Juragebirge; Italian: Massiccio del Giura) are a sub-alpine mountain range located north of the Western Alps, mainly following the course of the France– Switzerland
Switzerland
border
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Blazon
Heraldry
Heraldry
portalv t eIn heraldry and heraldic vexillology, a blazon is a formal description of a coat of arms, flag or similar emblem, from which the reader can reconstruct the appropriate image. The verb to blazon means to create such a description. The visual depiction of a coat of arms or flag has traditionally had considerable latitude in design, but a verbal blazon specifies the essentially distinctive elements. A coat of arms or flag is therefore primarily defined not by a picture but rather by the wording of its blazon (though often flags are in modern usage additionally and more precisely defined using geometrical specifications). Blazon
Blazon
also refers to the specialized language in which a blazon is written, and, as a verb, to the act of writing such a description
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Coat Of Arms
A coat of arms is an heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters, crest, and motto
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger
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