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Olshanski
Olshanski
Olshanski
(Lithuanian: Alšėniškiai or Alšėnų kunigaikščiai, Belarusian: Гальшанскі, Polish: Holszański) was a Lithuanian[1] princely family of Hipocentaur coat of arms
Hipocentaur coat of arms
from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Their patrimony was in Halshany
Halshany
(now in Belarus) and their property included Rokantiškės and Halshany Castles. During the 14–16th centuries most of the family was Orthodox by faith and Ruthenian by language, although there were exceptions, in particular Paweł Holszański
Paweł Holszański
was a Catholic Church official. The family was founded by Ivan Olshanski (fl. 1382–1402), a close ally of Vytautas, Grand Duke of Lithuania. Ivan's daughter Uliana married Vytautas
Vytautas
while granddaughter Sophia of Halshany
Halshany
married Vytautas' cousin Jogaila, King of Poland
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Igor Olshansky
Igor Olshansky
Igor Olshansky
(/oʊlˈʃænski/; born May 3, 1982) is a Ukrainian-born former American football
American football
defensive end in the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at Oregon and was drafted by the San Diego Chargers
San Diego Chargers
in the second round of the 2004 NFL Draft
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Principality Of Pereslavl
The Principality of Pereyaslavl
Principality of Pereyaslavl
(Ukrainian: Переяславське князівство) was a regional principality of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
from the end of 9th century until 1323, based in the city of Pereyaslavl (now Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi) on the Trubizh River.[1]Contents1 Siting 2 History 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksSiting[edit] The Principality of Pereyaslavl
Principality of Pereyaslavl
was usually administrated by younger sons of the Grand Prince of Kiev
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Smolensk
Smolensk
Smolensk
(Russian: Смоленск, IPA: [smɐˈlʲɛnsk] ( listen)) is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk
Smolensk
Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River, 360 kilometers (220 mi) west-southwest of Moscow. Population: 326,861 (2010 Census);[5] 325,137 (2002 Census);[10] 341,483 (1989 Census).[11] The walled city in the center of Smolensk
Smolensk
(along with the outskirts) was destroyed several times throughout its long history because it was on the invasion routes of both Napoleon
Napoleon
and Hitler
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Lithuanian Civil War (1381–84)
Teutonic Knights Samogitia Grand Duchy of LithuaniaCommanders and leadersKęstutis Vytautas Winrich von Kniprode Conrad Zöllner von RothensteinJogaila SkirgailaThe Lithuanian Civil War of 1381–1384 was the first struggle for power between the cousins Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania
Grand Duke of Lithuania
and later King of Poland, and Vytautas
Vytautas
the Great. It began after Jogaila
Jogaila
signed the Treaty of Dovydiškės
Treaty of Dovydiškės
with the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
which was aimed against his uncle Kęstutis, father of Vytautas. Kęstutis
Kęstutis
briefly seized power in the Grand Duchy, but was betrayed by adherents of Jogaila
Jogaila
primarily from Vilnius
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Livonian Order
The Livonian Order
Livonian Order
was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order,[1] formed in 1237. It was later a member of the Livonian Confederation, from 1435 to 1561.Contents1 History 2 Masters of the Livonian Order 3 Commanderies of the Livonian Order3.1 Estonia 3.2 Latvia4 ReferencesHistory[edit] The order was formed from the remnants of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword after their defeat by Samogitians
Samogitians
in 1236 at the Battle of Schaulen (Saule)
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Teutonic Knights
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem[2] (official names: Latin: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, German: Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order
Catholic religious order
founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
was formed to aid Christians
Christians
on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land
Holy Land
and to establish hospitals
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Patronymic Name
A patronymic, or patronym, is a component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather (i.e., an avonymic),[1][2] or an even earlier male ancestor. A component of a name based on the name of one's mother or a female ancestor is a matronymic. Each is a means of conveying lineage. In such instances, a person is usually referred to by their given name, rather than their patronymic. Patronymics are still in use, including mandatory use, in many countries worldwide, although their use has largely been replaced by or transformed into patronymic surnames
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Lithuanian Chronicles
The Lithuanian Chronicles (Lithuanian: Lietuvos metraščiai), or Belarusian-Lithuanian Chronicles[1][2] (Belarusian: Беларуска-літоўскія летапісы; Russian: Белорусско-литовские летописи) are three redactions of chronicles compiled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. All redactions were written in the Ruthenian language and served the needs of Lithuanian patriotism.[3] The first edition, compiled in the 1420s, glorified Vytautas the Great and supported his side in power struggles. The second redaction, prepared in the first half of the 16th century, started the myth of Lithuanian Roman origin: it gave a fanciful genealogy of Palemon, a noble from the Roman Empire who founded the Grand Duchy. This noble origin of Lithuanians was important in cultural rivalry with the Kingdom of Poland
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western)
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Vasili I Of Russia
Vasily I Dmitriyevich (Russian: Василий I Дмитриевич; 30 December 1371 – 27 February 1425) was the Grand Prince of Moscow (r. 1389—1425), heir of Dmitry Donskoy
Dmitry Donskoy
(r. 1359—1389). He ruled as a Golden Horde
Golden Horde
vassal between 1389-1395, and again in 1412-1425. The raid on the Volgan regions in 1395 by Mongol emir Timur
Timur
resulted in a state of anarchy for the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
and the independence of Moscow. In 1412, Vasily reinstated himself as a vassal of the Horde
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Iliaș Of Moldavia
Moldavia
Moldavia
(Romanian: Moldova, pronounced [molˈdova] ( listen) or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet)) is a historical region and former principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester
Dniester
River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia
Wallachia
(Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia
Moldavia
included the regions of Bessarabia
Bessarabia
(with the Budjak), all of Bukovina
Bukovina
and Hertza
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King Of Poland
Poland
Poland
was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century). During the latter period, a tradition of free election of monarchs made it a uniquely electable position in Europe (16th–18th centuries). The birth of Poland
Poland
as an independent nation coincides with the ascension of Duke Mieszko I[4] and adoption of Christianity
Christianity
under the authority of Rome in the year 966. He was succeeded by his son, Bolesław I the Brave, who greatly expanded the boundaries of the Polish state and ruled as the first king in 1025. The following centuries gave rise to the mighty Piast dynasty, consisting of both kings such as Mieszko II Lambert, Przemysł II
Przemysł II
or Władysław I the Elbow-high and dukes like Bolesław III Wrymouth
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Voivode Of Moldavia
This is a List of rulers of Moldavia, from the first mention of the medieval polity east of the Carpathians and until its disestablishment in 1862, when it united with Wallachia, the other Danubian Principality, to form the modern-day state of Romania.Contents1 Notes 2 List2.1 Princes of Moldavia2.1.1 House of Dragoș 2.1.2 House of Bogdan-Mușat 2.1.3 Houses of Basarab
Basarab
( Drăculeşti
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Alexăndrel Of Moldavia
Alexăndrel, son of Iliaș of Moldavia, was the prince (or voivode) of Moldavia in 1449, from 1452 to 1454, and in 1455. He preferred the alliance with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth,[1] in contrast with Peter III of Moldavia, who was protégé of John Hunyadi, Governor of Hungary.[2] The influence of Hungary weakened after the Ottomans defeated Hunyadi's army in the second Battle of Kosovo in October 1448.[1] With the support of boyars who preferred an alliance with the Commonwealth, Alexăndrel expelled Peter III from Moldavia and seized the throne[1][2] in February 1449.[3] He confirmed the privileges of the merchants of Brașov.[1] According to the Moldavian-Polish chronicle, Alexăndrel also ceded Chilia (now Kiliya
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Castellan
A castellan was the governor or captain of a castellany and its castle.[1] The word stems from the Latin Castellanus,[2] derived from castellum "castle". Sometimes also known as a constable, governor of the castle district or captain, the Constable of the Tower
Constable of the Tower
of London is, in fact, a form of castellan. A castellan was almost always male, but could occasionally be female, as when, in 1194, Beatrice inherited her father's castellany of Bourbourg
Bourbourg
upon the death of her brother, Roger.[3]Contents1 Initial power 2 Duties2.1 Castellans and Jews3 Regional differences3.1 France 3.2 Germany 3.3 Hungary 3.4 Jerusalem 3.5 Malta 3.6 Poland 3.7 Portugal4 Castellany 5 See also 6 ReferencesInitial power[edit] After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, many tribes migrated into western Europe, causing strife and war
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