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Oliver Cromwell
English Civil War:Gainsborough Marston Moor Newbury II Naseby Langport Preston Dunbar WorcesterRoyal styles of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector
Lord Protector
of the CommonwealthReference style His HighnessSpoken style Your HighnessAlternative style Sir Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
(25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658)[a] was an English military and political leader. He served as Lord Protector
Lord Protector
of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1653 until his death, acting simultaneously as head of state and head of government of the new republic. Cromwell was born into the middle gentry, albeit to a family descended from the sister of King Henry VIII's minister Thomas Cromwell
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Member Of Parliament (United Kingdom)
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, this category includes specifically members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title
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Military History Of The United Kingdom
The military history of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
covers the period from the creation of the united Kingdom of Great Britain, with the political union of England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
in 1707,[1] to the present day. From the 18th century, with the expansion of the British Empire
British Empire
and the country's industrial strength, Britain's military force became one of the largest and most powerful in the world, particularly that of its navy, with advanced technology and bases across the world. It declined during the 20th century in the wake of two world wars, decolonisation, and the rise of the United States
United States
and the USSR
USSR
as the new superpowers. Britain has been involved in a great many armed conflicts since the union in 1707, on all continents except for Antarctica
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London
London
London
(/ˈlʌndən/ ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom.[7][8] Standing on the River Thames
River Thames
in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium.[9] London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries
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Palace Of Whitehall
The Palace of Whitehall
Whitehall
(or Palace of White Hall) at Westminster, Middlesex, was the main residence of the English monarchs from 1530 until 1698, when most of its structures, except for Inigo Jones's Banqueting House
Banqueting House
of 1622, were destroyed by fire
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Colonel
Colonel
Colonel
(abbreviated Col., Col or COL and pronounced /ˈkɜːrnəl/, similar to "kernel") is a senior military officer rank below the general officer ranks. However, in some small military forces, such as those of Iceland
Iceland
or the Vatican, colonel is the highest rank. It is also used in some police forces and paramilitary organizations. Historically, in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a colonel was typically in charge of a regiment in an army. Modern usage varies greatly, and in some cases the term is used as an honorific title that may have no direct relationship to military service. The rank of colonel is typically above the rank of lieutenant colonel. The rank above colonel is typically called brigadier, brigade general or brigadier general. Equivalent naval ranks may be called captain or ship-of-the-line captain
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Lieutenant-general
Lieutenant
Lieutenant
general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt. Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a captain general. In modern armies, lieutenant general normally ranks immediately below general and above major general; it is equivalent to the navy rank of vice admiral, and in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air marshal
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Style (manner Of Address)
A style of office or honorific is an official or legally recognized title.[1][2] A style, by tradition or law, precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or political office, and is sometimes used to refer to the office itself. An honorific can also be awarded to an individual in a personal capacity. Such styles are particularly associated with monarchies, where they may be used by a wife of an office holder or of a prince of the blood, for the duration of their marriage
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Alma Mater
Alma mater
Alma mater
(Latin: alma "nourishing/kind", mater "mother"; pl. [rarely used] almae matres) is an allegorical Latin
Latin
phrase for a university or college. In English, this is largely a U.S. usage referring to a school or university from which an individual has graduated or to a song or hymn associated with a school.[1] The phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students.[2] Fine arts will often depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, Alma mater
Alma mater
was an honorific title for various Latin
Latin
mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele,[3] and later in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary
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Henry VIII Of England
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled. His disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England
Church of England
and dissolved convents and monasteries. Despite his resulting excommunication, Henry remained a believer in core Catholic
Catholic
theological teachings.[2] Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England
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Gentry
The term gentry (genterie; Old French
Old French
gentil: "high-born", "noble") describes the "well-born, genteel, and well-bred people" of the social class below the nobility of a society.[1][2] As families of long descent, who never obtained the right to bear a coat of arms, their inherited socio-economic position connected them to the landed estates (manorialism) and to the upper levels of the clergy
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Politics Of England
The Politics of England
England
forms the major part of the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with England
England
being more populous than all the other countries of the United Kingdom put together. As England
England
is also by far the largest in terms of area and GDP, its relationship to the UK is somewhat different from that of Scotland, Wales
Wales
or Northern Ireland. The English capital London
London
is also the capital of the UK, and English is the dominant language of the UK (not officially, but de facto). Dicey and Morris (p26) list the separate states in the British Islands. "England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, the Isle of Man, Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, and Sark...
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Highness
Highness (abbreviation HH, oral address Your Highness) is a formal style used to address (in second person) or refer to (in third person) certain members of a reigning or formerly reigning dynasty. It is typically used with a possessive adjective: "His Highness", "Her Highness" (HH), "Their Highnesses", etc
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Mary Cromwell, Countess Fauconberg
Mary Cromwell, Countess Fauconberg (christened 9 February 1637, died 14 March 1713) was the third daughter of Oliver Cromwell and his wife Elizabeth Bourchier.[1] Born in either late 1636 or early 1637, she was christened on 9 February 1637.[1] On 19 November 1657 she married Thomas Belasyse, 1st Earl Fauconberg at Hampton Court, and became Countess Fauconberg.[2] Her residence in London was Fauconberg House which was on the north side of Sutton Street, and on the eastern side of Soho Square.[3] She died on 14 March 1713 at the age of 76, and was buried on 24 March in the church of St. Nicholas Church, Chiswick, the district where she had lived since 1676.[3] References[edit]Footnotes^ a b Anderson (1862), p. 1. ^ Anderson (1862), p. 10 ^ a b Anderson (1862), p. 29.SourcesAnderson, James (1862). Memorable Women of the Puritan Times
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Battle Of Langport
The Battle of Langport
Langport
was a Parliamentarian victory late in the First English Civil War
English Civil War
which destroyed the last Royalist field army and gave Parliament control of the West of England, which had hitherto been a major source of manpower, raw materials and imports for the Royalists. The battle took place on 10 July 1645 near the small town of Langport, which lies south of Bristol.Contents1 Campaign 2 Battle 3 Results 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksCampaign[edit] Taunton
Taunton
had been captured by the Parliamentarian army under the Earl of Essex in June 1644
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Second Battle Of Newbury
IndecisiveTactically inconclusive Royalist strategic initiative; Charles withdraws unimpeded Subsequent Parliamentarian political initiatives, resulting in the formation of the New Model ArmyBelligerents Parliamentarians RoyalistsCommanders and leaders Earl of Essex Earl of Manchester Sir William Waller Charles I Prince MauriceStrength19,000 7,000 cavalry 12,000 infantry 8,500 3,500 cavalry 5,000 infantryCasualties and losses2,000 1,500v t eFirst English Civil War1st Hull Portsmouth Powick Bridge Kings Norton Edgehill Aylesbury Brentford Chichester Turnham Green Braddock Down Leeds 1st Middlewich Hopton Heath Seacroft Moor Camp Hill Lichfield Reading Ripple Field Sourton Down Stratton Wakefield 1st Worcester Chalgrove Field Adwalton Moor Burton Bridge Lansdowne Roundway Down 1st Bristol Gainsborough Gloucester Aldbourne Chase 1st Newbury 2nd Hull Heptonstall Winceby Olney Basing House Alton 2
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